Search Images Maps Play YouTube Gmail Drive Calendar More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUSRE44222 E1
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 13/488,357
Publication date14 May 2013
Filing date4 Jun 2012
Priority date17 Apr 2002
Fee statusPaid
Also published asUS7287275, US7530102, US8104079, US8224705, US8473746, US8706570, US9639717, US20030200439, US20080005571, US20080005572, US20090210711, US20120066402, US20130030938, US20130340100, US20170187729, USRE44307
Publication number13488357, 488357, US RE44222 E1, US RE44222E1, US-E1-RE44222, USRE44222 E1, USRE44222E1
InventorsScott Moskowitz
Original AssigneeScott Moskowitz
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Methods, systems and devices for packet watermarking and efficient provisioning of bandwidth
US RE44222 E1
Abstract
Disclosed herein are methods and systems for transmitting streams of data. The present invention also relates to generating packet watermarks and packet watermark keys. The present invention also relates to a computerized system for packaging data for transmission to a user. The system may utilize computer code to generate a bandwidth rights certificate that may include: at least one cryptographic credential; routing information for the transmission; and, optionally, a digital signature of a certificate owner; a unique identification code of a certificate owner; a certificate validity period; and pricing information for use of bandwidth. The present invention also relates to an electronic method and system for purchasing good and services by establishing an account whereby a customer is credited with a predetermined amount of bandwidth usage, and then charges are assessed against the account in an amount of bandwidth usage which corresponds to the agreed upon purchase value for the selected item.
Images(21)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(26)
What is claimed is:
1. A process for transmitting a stream of data, comprising:
receiving a stream of data;
organizing the stream of data into a plurality of packets;
generating a packet watermark associated with the stream of data wherein the packet watermark indicates the integrity of at least one of the plurality of packets;
combining the packet watermark with each of the plurality of packets to form watermarked packets; and
transmitting at least one of the watermarked packets across a network.
2. The process of claim 1, further comprising:
receiving at least one packet that has been transmitted across a network;
analyzing the integrity of at least one packet using at least a portion of the packet watermark; and
in the event the analysis indicates integrity of the at least one packet, permitting the transmission of the at least one packet, and in the event that the analysis indicates tampering of the at least one packet, indicating a signal of tampering.
3. The process of claim 2, wherein the step of analyzing the integrity of the at least one packet is based on predetermined criteria selected from the group comprising: a quality or quantity of the stream of data, willingness to pay for the stream of data, pricing for the stream of data, access to the stream of data, differential quality of service, reputation or recognition of the stream of data, reputation or recognition of the origin of the stream of data, related packet flows, metadata or XML associated with a related stream of data, intrusion detection techniques, virus detection techniques, Ethernet IDs, port IDs, URLs, DNS addresses, a prior history, a logical context of the origin of the stream of data, or combinations thereof.
4. The process of claim 1, further comprising:
receiving at least one packet that has been transmitted across a network;
determining the integrity of a portion of the stream of data using at least a portion of the packet watermark; and
in the event the analysis indicates integrity of the portion of the stream of data, permitting the transmission of the stream of data, and in the event that the analysis indicates tampering of portion of the stream of data, indicating a signal of tampering.
5. The process of claim 4, wherein the step of determining the integrity of the portion of the stream of data is based on predetermined criteria selected from the group comprising: a quality or quantity of the stream of data, willingness to pay for the stream of data, pricing for the stream of data, access to the stream of data, differential quality of service, reputation or recognition of the stream of data, reputation or recognition of the origin of the stream of data, related packet flows, metadata or XML associated with a related stream of data, intrusion detection techniques, virus detection techniques, Ethernet IDs, port IDs, URLs, DNS addresses, a prior history, a logical context of the origin of the stream of data, or combinations thereof.
6. The process of claim 1, wherein the step of generating a packet watermark comprises:
generating a watermark packet key;
associating a unique identifier with the watermark packet key; and
generating a packet watermark comprising the unique identifier associated with the watermark packet key.
7. The process of claim 1, wherein the step of generating a packet watermark comprises:
generating a watermark packet key;
associating a unique identifier with the watermark packet key;
assigning a quality of service level to the stream of data; and
generating a packet watermark comprising:
the unique identifier associated with the watermark packet key; and
the quality of service level assigned to the stream of data.
8. The process of claim 1, wherein the step of generating a packet watermark comprises:
generating a watermark packet key;
associating a unique identifier with the watermark packet key;
assigning a quality of service level to the stream of data; and
generating a hash output for a portion of the stream of data; and
generating a packet watermark comprising:
the unique identifier associated with the watermark packet key;
the quality of service level assigned to the stream of data; and
the hash output for said portion of the stream of data.
9. The process of claim 1, further comprising:
receiving a plurality of packets that have been transmitted across a network; and
analyzing at least a predetermined minimal number of the plurality of packets for a packet watermark to authenticate each of the at least predetermined minimal number of packets using the packet watermark, wherein the predetermined minimal number is determined based on one of a quality of the stream of data being transmitted or a quantity of the stream of data being transmitted.
10. The process of claim 9, further comprising:
in the event that the analysis does not authenticate at least one of the plurality of packets, modifying the data being transmitted so that the data is either degraded in quality or degraded in quantity.
11. The process of claim 9, further comprising:
in the event that the analysis authenticates at least one of the plurality of packets, prioritizing the data being transmitted.
12. A system for provisioning content, comprising:
a processor to receive content and to organize the content into a plurality of packets;
a generator to generate at least one packet watermark associated with the content;
a packager to combine the generated packet watermark with at least one of the plurality of packets to form watermarked packets; and
a transmitter to transmit at least one of the watermarked packets across a network.
13. The system of claim 12, further comprising a router, which router comprises:
a network receiver to receive a packet that has been transmitted across a network; and
a network processor coupled to the network receiver for analyzing the packet for a packet watermark that can be used to provision the associated content.
14. The system of claim 13, wherein the network processor creates one of differential quality of service or uniquely identifiable packet flow.
15. The system of claim 12, wherein the content comprises a stream of data selected from the group comprising: aesthetic data; functional data; payment data, willingness to pay data; authenticated data; verified data, authorized data, reputation or recognition data; or combinations thereof.
16. The system of claim 12, wherein the module of the generator further generates a hash output for a portion of the content, and the packet watermark that is generated comprises the hash output for said portion of the content, the unique identifier associated with the watermark packet key, and the quality of service level associated with the content.
17. The system of claim 12, wherein the packet watermark is steganographic, cryptographic or both steganographic and cryptographic.
18. The system of claim 12, wherein the generated packet watermark is associated with the content based on a predetermined criteria selected from one of: identification, authentication, authorization, or data integrity of the associated content.
19. A method of packet watermarking data for transmission, comprising:
receiving content data;
organizing the content data into at least two packets;
generating at least a portion of a packet watermark associated with at least one of the packets of data said packet watermark being associated with authentication information; and
combining the at least one portion of a packet watermark, and the at least one packet of data, for transmission across a network.
20. The method of claim 19, further comprising:
generating a bandwidth rights certificate comprising:
at least one cryptographic credential; and routing information selected from the group consisting of authorization data to authorize use of at least one particular router and priority data to prioritize use of at least one particular router; and
combining the bandwidth rights certificate, the at least one portion of a packet watermark, and the at least one packet of data, for transmission across a network.
21. A computerized system for packet watermarking data for transmission to a user, comprising:
a receiver to receive content data;
computer code to organize the data into at least two packets;
computer code to generate a packet watermark associated with at least one of the packets of data said packet watermark being associated with authentication information; and
computer code to combine the bandwidth rights certificate, the packet watermark, and the at least one packet, for transmission across a network.
22. The system of claim 21, further comprising:
computer code to generate a bandwidth rights certificate comprising:
at least one cryptographic credential; and
routing information selected from the group consisting of authorization data to authorize use of at least one particular router and priority data to prioritize use of at least one particular router; and
computer code to combine the bandwidth rights certificate, the packet watermark, and the at least one packet, for transmission across a network.
23. The system of claim 21, wherein the system is configured to operate on a hardware device selected from the group consisting of: a personal computer, a cable box, a telephone, a cellular telephone, a personal digital assistant, a personal music playback device, and a smart card.
24. A system for secure data transmission, comprising:
a receiver to receive data;
a processor to organize the data into a plurality of packets;
a watermark generator to generate at least a portion of a packet watermark associated with at least one packet of data wherein the packet watermark is associated with verification information; and
a transmitter to transmit at least one of the plurality of data packets, and its associated packet watermark, across a network.
25. The system of claim 24, wherein the transmitter transmits, one at a time, across a network each of the plurality of data packets, together with its respective associated watermark, said system further comprising:
a network device to receive the transmitted packets, which network device reassembles the data, at least in part, in a prioritized manner, starting with those data packets that are perceptually significant, functionally significant, or both.
26. The system of claim 24, wherein the verification information verifies one of a source, origin, contents, destination or combinations thereof for the associated packet.
Description
RELATED APPLICATIONS

This applicationThis is a Reissue based on U.S. Pat. No. 7,530,102, incorporated herein by reference, which matured from application Ser. No. 11/900,066, filed Sep. 10, 2007, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/417,231, filed Apr. 17, 2003 issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,287,275. This application, which claims priority tothe benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/372,788, filed Apr. 17, 2002, which. U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/372,788, filed Apr. 17, 2002 is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

This application is also related to the following applications: U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/046,627, filed Mar. 24, 1998, entitled “Method for Combining Transfer Function with Predetermined Key Creation”(issued as U.S. Pat. No. 6,598,162); U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/644,098, filed Aug. 23, 2000, entitled “Multiple Transform Utilization and Application for Secure Digital Watermarking” (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,035,409); and pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/767,733, filed Jan. 24, 2001, entitled “Multiple Transform Utilization and Application for Secure Digital Watermarking”. The previously identified patents and/or patent applications are hereby incorporated by reference, in their entireties:

Each of the following applications is incorporated by reference, in its entirety: U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/594,719, filed Jun. 16, 2000, entitled “Utilizing Data Reduction in Steganographic and Cryptographic Systems” (which is a continuation-in-part of International Application No. PCT/US00/06522, filed Mar. 14, 2000, which PCT application claimed priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/125,990, filed Mar. 24, 1999) (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,123,718); U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/731,040, filed Dec. 7, 2000, entitled “Systems, Methods And Devices For Trusted Transactions” (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,159,116); pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/049,101, filed Feb. 8, 2002, entitled “A Secure Personal Content Server” (which claims priority to International Application No. PCT/US00/21189, filed Aug. 4, 2000, which claims priority to U.S. patent application No. 60/147,134, filed Aug. 4, 1999, and to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 60/213,489, filed Jun. 23, 2000); U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/657,181. filed Sep. 7, 2000, entitled “Method And Device For Monitoring And Analyzing Signals” (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,346,472; U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/671,739, filed Sep. 29, 2000, entitled “Method And Device For Monitoring And Analyzing Signals” (abandoned); U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/956,262, filed Sep. 20, 2001, entitled “Improved Security Based on Subliminal and Supraliminal Channels For Data Objects” (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,127,615); U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/731,039, entitled “System and Method for Permitting Open Access to Data Objects and For Securing Data Within the Data Objects,” filed Dec. 7, 2000 (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,177,429); U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/545,589, filed Apr. 7, 2000, entitled “Method and System for Digital Watermarking” (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,007,166); U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/999,766, filed Jul. 23, 1997, entitled “Steganographic Method and Device”; U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/456,319, filed Dec. 8, 1999, entitled “Z-Transform Implementation of Digital Watermarks” (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 6,853,726): U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/674,726, filed Jul. 2, 1996, entitled “Exchange Mechanisms for Digital Information Packages with Bandwidth Securitization, Multichannel Digital Watermarks, and Key Management” (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,362,775); U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/369,344, filed Feb. 18, 2003, entitled “Optimization Methods for the Insertion, Protection, and Detection of Digital Watermarks in Digitized Data” (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,095,874); and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/789,711, filed Feb. 22, 2001, entitled “Optimization Methods for the Insertion, Protection and Detection of Digital Watermarks in Digital Data” (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,107,451).

In addition, this application hereby incorporates by reference, as if fully stated herein, the disclosures of the following patents: U.S. Pat. No. 5,822,432, entitled “Method for Human Assisted Random Key Generation . . . ”; U.S. Pat. No. 5,905,800, entitled “Method & System for Digital Watermarking”; U.S. Pat. No. 5,613,004, entitled “Steganographic Method and Device”; U.S. Pat. No. 5,687,236, entitled “Steganographic Method and Device”; U.S. Pat. No. 5,745,569, entitled “Method for Stega-Protection of Computer Code”; U.S. Pat. No. 6,078,664, entitled “Z-Transform Implementation of Digital Watermarks”; U.S. Pat. No. 5,428,606, entitled “Digital Commodities Exchange”; U.S. Pat. No. 5,889,868, entitled “Optimization Methods for the Insertion, Protection and Detection . . . ”; U.S. Pat. No. 6,522,767, entitled “Optimization Methods for the Insertion, Protection and Detection . . . ”; U.S. Pat. No. 5,539,735, entitled “Digital Information Commodities Exchange”; and U.S. Pat. No. 6,205,249, entitled “Multiple Transform Utilization and Application for Secure Digital Watermarking”. The following article is also incorporated herein by reference: “Bandwidth as Currency,” IEEE Multimedia, January/March 2003 (Vol. 10, No. 1), by Scott Moskowitz.

BACKGROUND

A need exists for optimizing and provisioning the allocation of bandwidth. This is to assure better handling of the competitive needs between networks and the concept of Quality of Service (“QoS”), including determining the priority of available bandwidth in a given network. The prior art addresses priority of transmission paths for data in an attempt to alleviate bottlenecks within a given network. Caching technologies, as an example, seek to push higher demand data closer to the access points for which the data is demanded, so-called “edge traffic.” A related approach, Quality of Service (“QoS”), attempts to make decisions about bandwidth accessibility based on a user's ability to access material within some predetermined time frame. For instance, if X number of users are able to access Y amount of bandwidth over some fixed period of time T, bandwidth can be estimated as a function of satisfying users X, or some percentage of X, for each increment of Y divided by T.

Users, however, may seek data objects (note that the terms “data object”, “data”, “discrete analog waveform”, or “data signal”—may be used interchangeably in this application) which by their very structure or format may occupy large amounts of bandwidth, thereby creating bandwidth demand that has little or no relationship to how the data is valued by third parties, including owners of the rights related to the objects. An example is the higher bandwidth demand and creation of network latency when streaming an audio or video signal, where, in addition, the data signal itself may be copyrighted. It is reasonable to assume that a copyrighted work does indeed have more value than one that is not copyrighted.

If a network can be used to handle any number of data files which can be aesthetic or not (for instance, functional data, such as algorithms, which itself manipulates data, would be considered to be non-aesthetic), and the value of the potential data may not be known in advance of provisioning for understanding how to handle bandwidth, this disclosure is designed to address some of the key factors in enabling a market for handling bandwidth and related transactions for data, which is made up of bandwidth in terms of how the data is rendered, manipulated, distributed and “potentially” priced given delivery and derivatives pricing to assist in the aggregate with delivery (particularly, commercial, so as to maximize the value of a network at any given point in time) of said objects. Another example is peer-to-peer network technologies that may tie-up bandwidth based on extensive database functions to bring two or more parties together seeking some data object without regard to the object's price or the underlying cost of maintaining peer-to-peer links to enable transfers of files between users. Additionally, the data object being demanded may not be readily determined to have ownership, authentication or responsibility necessary for successful commerce. This includes virtual private networks (“VPN”) or demands made for security by senders, receivers, or combinations of both. Such clearinghouse features have been proposed by digital rights management (“DRM”) providers but they lack the efficiencies and consumer demand which are required to handle data objects in a manner consistent with historical sales of a variety of data objects offered in physical formats. Systems such as Napster.TM. Napster™, have been estimated to command as much as 4% of overall Internet bandwidth and yet no financial transactions exist to pay for either this extensive use of network bandwidth or any affiliated ownership and usage rights of the data being exchanged nor the historical value of said objects in other mediums such as physical objects containing the data (for example, copyrighted music files).

TCP, or Transmission Control Protocol, is currently used to break data into packets for transmission, which are received and reconstructed, sequentially at the receiver's end of the transmission. Technologies exist to assist with error correction when packets are dropped or lost during transmission. IP, or Internet Protocol, is designed to provide each networked “device” with an IP address. Packets sent under TCP and labeled with IP addresses enable data to be broken into packets and sent between machines that share TCP/IP coding schemes. In IP version 4 (“IPv4”), the current Internet Protocol, there are option fields that can be exploited at any place in the transmission chain for writing/embedding and detecting/recovering digital watermarks, a feature of embodiments in the present invention, for provisioning and pricing schemes, bandwidth prioritization, management systems, dispute resolution and clearinghouse functions. IPv4 allows up to 40 bytes of options; the size of IPv6 extension headers will only be constrained by the size of the IPv6 packet. Because of the sequential nature of TCP/IP a variety of optimizations have been suggested in the art. These include better ways of handling packets that may not have arrived at the intended address, or may have been lost during the transmission for any number of reasons (timing, error, overcapacity, rerouting, etc.).

One means for optimizing network speed is based on application of Reed-Solomon error correction coding. Because TCP/IP packets represent predetermined packets of data, that is, have a specific size without regard to the data object (e.g., its characteristics, perceptible or otherwise) being rendered, coarser estimates of the data objects' aesthetics or characteristics enable mathematical values to be assigned to a larger portion or subset of the data object itself. A simple linear equation can be used to define the independently derived values representing the data object. These mathematical values represent groupings of packets that are not sequentially ordered but fitted to the characteristics of the data object being broken down for transmission. These values can be handled by the systems or devices of the sender and receiver of the data to speed transmission or routing of the data. Using error correction coding, chunks are not sequential, as with TCP, but are generated with variations on Reed-Solomon code so that receivers of the data get chunks of the transmission that can be reconstructed non-sequentially but efficiently so long as the assigned values for the data are received. The chunks may also overlap the packets that would typically represent the object. In some applications, those signal features of the data which are deemed relatively, perceptibly important are reconstructed first on the receiving end of the transmission. This approach has the effect of speeding the routing of data over a network, such as the Internet.

IPv6 includes proposals for additional optimizations. In contrast with current IPv4 systems which are optimized to handled end-to-end transmission of data, without regard for the content of the data itself, attention has turned to enabling traffic prioritization, low level authentication with encryption, and better handling of audio and video streams. The present invention seeks to enable better granularity in handling data packets with a labeling scheme that can be handled by network infrastructures. Also essential is the authentication protocol to prevent labeling fraud. Specifically, the present invention offers a means for utilizing watermarks, in a manner that differs from traditional notions of digital watermarking (i.e., as information hiding in discrete objects), to prioritize data traffic and also to define the data being transmitted in terms consistent with any rights or ownership over the content being represented by the data. Provisions for clearinghouse facilities and certification of traffic are also contemplated by this document. Secondary or derivative markets for assisting in enabling efficiencies for the pricing of the bandwidth utilized are also, by extension, contemplated.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Disclosed herein is a method for transmitting a stream of data, which method comprises the steps of: receiving a stream of data; organizing the stream of data into a plurality of packets; generating a packet watermark associated with the stream of data; combining the packet watermark with each of the plurality of packets to form watermarked packets; and transmitting at least one of the watermarked packets across a network. The method may further comprise the steps of: receiving at least one packet that has been transmitted across a network; analyzing at least one packet for a watermark and authenticating the at least one packet using at least a portion of the watermark; and in the event that the analysis authenticates the at least one packet, permitting the transmission of the at least one packet, and in the event that the analysis does not authenticate the at least one packet, generating a signal of non-authentication. In generating a packet watermark, the present invention may include the steps: generating a watermark packet key; associating a unique identifier with the watermark packet key; and generating a packet watermark comprising the unique identifier associated with the watermark packet key. The packet watermark may be placed in a header for each of the plurality of packets to form watermarked packets. Optionally, the packet watermark may include a unique identifier associated with the watermark packet key, and/or a hash output for a portion of the stream of data. Optionally, in the event that the analysis does not authenticate a packet, the invention may: i) halt the transmission of the data; ii) modify the data being transmitted so that the data is either degraded in quality and/or in quantity; iii) store a copy of the data being transmitted along with information that is indicative of a failure to authenticate occurred; and/or iv) delay the transmission.

Also disclosed herein is a system for transmitting a stream of data, comprising: a processor to receive a stream of data and to organize the stream of data into a plurality of packets; a generator to generate a packet watermark associated with the stream of data; a packager to combine the packet watermark with each of the plurality of packets to form watermarked packets; and a transmitter to transmit at least one of the watermarked packets across a network. The system may further comprise one or more routers, which router may include: a network receiver to receive a packet that has been transmitted across a network; and a network processor coupled to the network receiver for analyzing the packet for a watermark that can be used to authenticate the packet; whereby in the event that the analysis authenticates the packet, the router permits the transmission of the packet to continue, and in the event that the analysis does not authenticate the packet, the router generates a signal of non-authentication. The generator may include: a module to generate a watermark packet key; a module that associates a unique identifier with the watermark packet key; and a watermark generator to generate a packet watermark, which itself may include the unique identifier associated with the watermark packet key and/or a quality of service level associated with the data stream. Optionally, the generator may include a hashing module to generate a hash output for a portion of the stream of data, which hash output may be included in the packet watermark.

Also disclosed is a method for packaging data for transmission to a user, comprising the steps of: receiving content data that is desired by a user; organizing the content data into at least two packets; generating a packet watermark associated with at least one of the packets of data; generating a bandwidth rights certificate; and combining the bandwidth rights certificate, the packet watermark, and the at least one packet for transmission across a network comprising a plurality of routers. The bandwidth rights certificate may include: at least one cryptographic credential; and routing information selected from the group consisting of authorization data to authorize use of at least one particular router and priority data to prioritize use of at least one particular router.

Also disclosed is a computerized system for packaging data for transmission to a user, which system comprises: a receiver to receive content data; computer code to organize the data into at least two packets; computer code to generate a packet watermark associated with at least one of the packets of data; computer code to generate a bandwidth rights certificate; and computer code to combine the bandwidth rights certificate, the packet watermark, and the at least one packet, for transmission across a network comprising a plurality of routers. The bandwidth rights certificate may include: at least one cryptographic credential; and routing information selected from the group consisting of authorization data to authorize use of at least one particular router and priority data to prioritize use of at least one particular router. The bandwidth rights certificate may also include one or more of the following: a digital signature of a certificate owner; a unique identification code of a certificate owner; a certificate validity period; and pricing information for use of bandwidth. Optionally, the system may include a storage medium for storing bandwidth rights certificate and/or one or more packets of data. The system may be configured to operate on a hardware device selected from the group consisting of: a personal computer, a cable box, a telephone, a cellular telephone, a personal digital assistant, a personal music playback device, and a smart card.

Also disclosed is an electronic method for purchasing good and/or services, which comprises the steps of: establishing an account whereby a customer is credited with a predetermined amount of bandwidth usage; establishing a communication link with a vending system; selecting an item to be purchased; agreeing to a purchase value for the selected item; communicating to the vending system a request to purchase the selected item; and causing a debit to the account in an amount of bandwidth usage which corresponds to the agreed upon purchase value for the selected item. The communication link may utilize bandwidth on a given network, in which case the method may include the further step of causing a debit to the account in an amount of bandwidth usage which corresponds to the bandwidth usage associated with the time utilized in purchasing the item using the communication link. A debit may be in an amount of bandwidth usage which corresponds to an agreed upon transactional charge.

Also disclosed is an electronic method for selling good and/or services, and for collecting payments from a purchaser's account, which account has a predetermined amount of bandwidth usage. This method may include the steps of: establishing a communication link between a vending system and a purchasing system; receiving a request to purchase a selected item; determining a purchase value for the selected item; causing a debit to the purchaser's account in an amount of bandwidth usage which corresponds to the agreed upon purchase value for the selected item; and sending an instruction to deliver the selected item. This method may be useful when purchasing copies of digital data, when the method may be used to create a copy of digital data and to embed a record of the transaction into the copy of the digital data. When the communication link being established utilizes bandwidth on a given network, the method may include the step of causing a debit to the account in an amount of bandwidth usage which corresponds to the bandwidth usage associated with the time utilized in purchasing the item using the communication link. The debit may be made in an amount of bandwidth usage which corresponds to an agreed upon transactional charge. The method may also confirm that the debit to the account has been completed before sending an instruction to deliver the selected item.

Also disclosed is an exchange system for selling good and/or services, and for collecting payments from a purchaser's account, which account has a predetermined amount of bandwidth usage. The system may include: a communicator to establish a communication link between the exchange system and a purchasing system, whereby the two-way communication system can receive a request to purchase a selected item; a display for advertising, for sale, good and/or services; a transaction module for determining a purchase value for a selected item; a debit module for causing a debit to the purchaser's account in an amount of bandwidth usage that corresponds to the sum of: i) the purchase value for the selected item and ii) a transactional charge; and a delivery module for sending an instruction to deliver the selected item. The system may also include a dispenser to deliver the selected item. The system may also include an interface (for example, software and/or hardware) physically located on the exchange system to permit the selection for purchase of at least one items. The debit module may include a communication link with a third party system, whereby the debit module sends a request to debit the purchaser's account in an specified amount of bandwidth usage, and whereby the third party system causes the debit in the specified amount

Finally, a system for the transmission of data is disclosed. This system may include: a receiver to receive content data; a processor to organize the content data into a plurality of packets; a watermark generator to generate at least a portion of a packet watermark associated with at least one packet of data; a certificate generator to generate a bandwidth rights certificate associated with at least one packet of data; and a transmitter to transmit at least one of the plurality of data packets, its associated watermark, and its associated bandwidth rights certificate across a network. The bandwidth rights certificate may include routing information selected from the group consisting of authorization data to authorize use of at least one particular router and priority data to prioritize use of at least one particular router. The system may also include a router to receive a transmission comprising a data packet, its associated watermark, and its associated bandwidth rights certificate, which router is configured to analyze the transmission and to check the authenticity of the transmission, and in the event that the analysis does not authenticate the transmission, the router generates a signal of non-authentication. In the event that the analysis does not authenticate the transmission, the router may take an action selected from the group consisting of: halting the transmission; delaying the transmission; and re-routing the transmission to a router for which the transmission is authenticated. The router may be configured to analyze and authenticate the transmission by checking a plurality of packet watermarks.

By means of associating a data object with a watermark, the present invention can analyze at the data that has been prepared for network delivery. Using the present invention, data can now be sent to a receiver in a manner which provisions bandwidth in an efficient manner (the novel embodiments described herein). When a single file is watermarked, it can be made as a unique copy. An advantage of the present invention is that it can create “postage for packets” (more articulately described as “bandwidth provisioning”). The present invention provides better granularity of what packets are demanded versus other packets. By means of associating identity and authenticating information of the packets, the present invention can more efficiently apportion bandwidth to meet market demands which are based on demand for information over networks and a better ability to identify the packets people are willing to pay for. The present invention also permits a better accounting system so that packets can be billed to the appropriate parties, and permits disputes to be more objectively resolved because the present invention can use cryptographic protocols that help to assure a higher level of confidence in how provisioning is being handled. Similarly, the present invention makes it possible to charge for bandwidth in a manner more closely similar to a traditional telephone billing system. The difference is that telephone billing systems do not take into account the contents or paths of packets, per se, nor do traditional telephone systems assist in creating a means for competitively evaluating bandwidth based on consumer demand for data which can be compared in media terms (type of media, rights, authenticity of the data, quality level of the media based on a differential price, etc.) not solely data size terms.

Using the present inventions, a network can check and verify efficient bandwidth delivery on a packet level and can store information concerning better paths between senders and receivers of these packets. The present inventions permit optimized “flows” so to speak. For certain economic or business models, further features may be added to make internet handling of data similar to how billing works for traditional telecommunications by phone companies. Such companies buy bandwidth resources in bulk by contract and do not have any underlying understanding of what the bandwidth is used for nor how to encourage higher value for any given bit for each bit per time calculation. There is no technology that does this either in the existing art. Since the denominator, time, is fixed at any discrete moment, maximizing economic value for the numerator (the bit) given a market for information and goods and services that are informationally based, higher economic value can be attributed to a given network or networks which implement the features embodied herein. While no one can know in advance what the demand for a given data object—prior to being exposed to a marketplace of participants, parties can agree to the cost of bandwidth for a given business activity (streaming a live concert, handling bandwidth based transactions which are tied to a subscription with a bandwidth device such as a cell phone, choices between a streamed or copyable version of a data object, etc.). Streaming, to date, has never been made economically viable because, in part, vendors have not taken a packet level view of the flow of data to people demanding a stream. Nor have vendors tied payment or willingness to pay to the packets. This is where the present invention differs.

This document addresses three things to assist in getting this done: efficient provisioning of the packets on the network the creation of a so-called “packet watermark”; creation of bandwidth credentials “to enhance liquidity and derivative pricing provisioning for future estimated use of bandwidth”; and market mechanisms with cryptographic protocols to assist in billing and resolution disputes, both for the packets themselves, and as an extension application of traditional watermarking to the data objects as a whole to uniquely identify the object as with previous watermarking disclosures. Preferably, packet watermarked data does not interfere with traditional watermarks to establish responsibility for the objects being transacted, since the consumer has no care about what the packets are but may benefit if the consumer is able to observe which paths are best for getting information. Vendors selling information similarly would pay premiums for a better understanding of this granularity. This may be to avoid “double payments” of bandwidth where they handle the sending and receiving costs—instead of a path between a sender and receiver.).

The present invention adds the novel layer of identity of the packets and subsequent provisioning by means of authenticating packets along a particular path (“flow”) and perhaps using the best path as history about various paths are captured by a database used for such purposes. Heuristics may be applied as the system learns the best paths for packets so that future or subsequent use can be optimized. Taken to another level, the packets can be further analyzed based on what the data is, if such identification is also provided. Packet watermarks and data object watermarks are two methods, one micro and macro, in terms of the data's aesthetics or utility to the sender and receiver. While packets may be useless as packets, in the aggregate, data objects have value. This value is determined by a market place for information that can create receipts for the objects and also postage for the packets.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Packet Watermarking for Quality of Service Delivery

A watermark is a data object embedded inside a carrier that is used to authenticate the carrier without interfering with its normal usage. The classic historical example is a watermark in a bank note that authenticates the paper used for printing. More recently, digital watermarks have been developed to imperceptibly embed data in rich content objects to transmit all varieties of information. Digital watermarks can also be applied to functional data such as software or code by means of obfuscation of the actual functional code, license information, identity, or other uniqueness hidden in similar or non-functional code. Software watermarking is intended to assist in authenticating code in a manner more robust to the underlying functionality of the software than can be accomplished by simple digital signing of the code. Signing aesthetic or functional data at the inherent granularity of perception or function enables authentication of said data even after data compression or code optimization; but such watermarking can also be used to detect manipulations of the data at a subsequent time. The following applications and pending applications represent a variety of digital watermarking and steganographic ciphering applications, and are incorporated herein by reference: U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/046,627, filed Mar. 24, 1998, entitled “Method for Combining Transfer Function with Predetermined Key Creation” (issued as Pat. No. 6,598,162): U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/644,098, filed Aug. 23, 2000, entitled “Multiple Transform Utilization and Application for Secure Digital Watermarking” (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,035,409); pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/767,733, filed Jan. 24, 2001, entitled “Multiple Transform Utilization and Application for Secure Digital Watermarking”; U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/545,589, filed Apr. 7, 2000, entitled “Method and System for Digital Watermarking” (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,007,166); pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/999,766, filed Jul. 23, 1997, entitled “Steganographic Method and Device”; U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/456,319, filed Dec. 8, 1999, entitled “Z-Transform Implementation of Digital Watermarks” (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 6,853,726); and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/674,726, filed Jul. 2, 1996, entitled “Exchange Mechanisms for Digital Information Packages with Bandwidth Securitization, Multichannel Digital Watermarks, and Key Management” (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,362,775). Other applications apply to a model for bandwidth optimization using digital watermarks (U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/369,344, filed Feb. 18, 2003, entitled “Optimization Methods for the Insertion, Protection, and Detection of Digital Watermarks in Digitized Data” (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,095,874); and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/789,711, filed Feb. 22, 2001, entitled “Optimization Methods for the Insertion, Protection and Detection of Digital Watermarks in Digital Data” (issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,107,451), which applications are incorporated herein in their entireties. Less attention, however, has been paid to the concept of perceptible but non-interfering digital watermarks.

The Internet Protocol (IP) encapsulates all traffic inside packets. The previous description of IP applies here. A specific data object is broken into two or more packets, based on size. Each packet has a header that contains addresses, routes, and other identifying information. Many parties have addressed the security of packets, including such standards as IPSec. These protocols allow for encryption and authentication of packets and flows of packets, whereby the receiver can be assured of the secrecy and authenticity of each packet. However, these systems are all designed to create a secure interchange between compliant parties. What is missing is a system by which the sender can guarantee a particular Quality of Service (QoS) to a receiver without entering into a cryptographic exchange with the receiver, using the existing and proposed Internet protocols without modification. This invention covers a novel combination of watermarking techniques with Internet Protocols to create such a system.

When a receiver requests a data object from a sender, the sender creates a packet flow with the receiver's address and sends it out into the Internet. The packets may make many hops before arriving at the receiver's IP address. At each node, a router examines the address and chooses a route to the next node. Often there are many possible routes from each node to the final destination. These routes may be ranked by a number of criteria, including current load, historical load, historical reliability, current latency, and historical latency. All of these factors could be used to route individual packets by more or less optimal paths—assuming that the router could discriminate between different flows. The packet watermark becomes the method by which the router identifies streams and creates differential QoS.

Simply labeling a packet as express, regular, or slow delivery is insufficient. There is no way to enforce compliance with the label. Quickly, everyone would be marking their packets “express” and there would no longer be differentiation. This is an example of the “free-loader” problem. A “packet watermark,” on the other hand, is cryptographically associated with the contents of the packet itself. For example, a traditional digital watermark may be dependent on signal characteristics of the signal being watermarked. If a key-based system is used for watermarking, a cryptographic association between the key and the signal via the watermark may be created. Besides the noise or signal characteristics in the signal itself, the key may be seeded by independent random information to make it more difficult to guess (meaning randomness independent form the signal to be watermarked to make guessing the key more computationally difficult—if a watermark is based solely on the signal and its inherent noise, finding the needle in the haystack is simply a searching problem, not a computationally difficult problem), even if the watermark is found in the signal. Key-based watermarks are used to authenticate or verify a data signal to establish responsibility for said signal or alert users of unauthorized data signal copies. Unauthorized use of a particular routing priority could be detected by a packet sniffer, which sampled a fraction of the overall traffic to detect, and deter, abuse of the system. The sniffer reads the watermark on the packet, checks the authentication, and signals invalid packets. The flow can then be rerouted, delayed or halted, depending upon the terms of the commercial contract. Additional embodiments of the present invention can assist in enabling a workable exchange that may further alert participants of the exchange of particular users or unauthorized parties. This can assist in preventing Denial of Service (“DoS”) attacks and similar misuse of network traffic. Conversely, the exchange may maintain histories of the effectiveness of particular routes or particular parties that may command a premium price or similar consideration for the “recognition” or “reputation” a party has attained.

Some form of recognition or identification of data streams may be handled by firewalls, intrusion detection systems and similar analysis to assure data integrity. These common techniques rely on comparisons with prior history of the data stream or data associated with it and may include heuristic or Bayesian methods for optimizing inherently comparative approaches. The present invention contemplates potential optimizations in authentication or verification of data streams and their associated packet watermark┌s┐ by determinations of any or combinations there of the following: Ethernet IDs, port IDs, URLs, DNS addresses, IP addresses, related data streams, related packet flows, XML or meta-data associated with the data streams or data objects, intrusion detection techniques, virus detection techniques, and a logical context of the packets' origin or destination. To this extent, the present invention may integrate data integrity checks along with its data authentication functions.

Sample Embodiment

In one embodiment of the present invention, the packet watermark may be used to classify a stream of data for a particular QoS. In particular, the stream of data may be organized into a plurality of packets, and the sender may add a watermark to the header of each packet comprising the stream. The size of the watermark may vary, but for illustration, a 32-bit watermark is used. Preferably, the same 32-bit watermark may be placed in each and every packet in the flow. In a particular case of TCP/IPv4, the 32-bit watermark may be stored in the Stream ID option field (i.e., in the header) in the IPv4 packets. To indicate a QoS level for the flow, a portion of the watermark may be reserved for a QoS level identifier. For example, in the example of a 32-bit watermark, the 4 MSB's (“most significant bits”) of the watermark could be used to identify the QoS level, yielding 16 available levels, and the remaining 28 bits of the watermark could be used to uniquely identify the flow.

The 32-bit watermark, or a portion thereof, may act as an identifier. No particular format is required for the watermark, and accordingly almost any format may be used. In the example illustrated, the 4 MSBs are used for the QoS level, and the remaining 28 bits can be used to store a unique identifier. One possible use for the remaining 28 bits is to store a unique identifier that is associated with a watermark packet key—which key can be used to help authenticate the data flows.

For example, the sender may create an array of SHA-1 hashes (or any hashing protocol deemed secure by the party or parties mutually) of the flow using a 4096 bit random sequence (the 4096 bit random sequence is referred to as the “Watermark Packet Key”). More particularly, the input to a hash function is comprised of three things: the Watermark Packet Key (in this case, 4096 bits), the Watermark (in this case, 32 bits), and a portion of the flow (for example, that portion of the flow that will be placed in a given packet). It is anticipated that the portion of the flow to be used as input to the hash function may comprise that the flow associated with one, two or even more data packets, but for purposes of illustration, the flow associated with one packet is used (i.e., the portion of the flow that will be inserted into one TCP/IPv4 packet). The output of the hash may have a predetermined number of bytes (usually as pre-determined by the hash function—for example, 20 for SHA-1). The array is the set of all of the hash outputs generated using successively portions of the flow until the complete flow has been processed. The outputs of the hash, the Watermark Packet Key, and the 32-bit watermark are combined to create the Watermark Identification (“WID”).

Accordingly, the watermark can be matched to a corresponding WID (by comparing the watermark in a packet with the watermark in a WID to see if they have the same unique identifier associated with a given watermark key). The component parts of the WID may then be used to check the authenticity of the flow. For example, the watermark key from the WID can be used with the data flow from the data packet to create a hash output, which can then be compared with the corresponding, previously generated hash output stored in the WID. If the newly generated hash output matches the previously generated has output, then the data is considered to be authenticated. Moreover, if a portion of the watermark is used to identify a particular QoS level, then the data can be evaluated for compliance for a particular path (such, as for transmission by a compliant router).

In this illustrated embodiment, 4 MSBs of the watermark have been used to identify a QoS level. This is simply a suggested format. Any predetermined bits (e.g., 4, more than 4, less than 4, whether MSBs or LSBs or even nonadjacent bits) may be used. It is preferable, however, that the same watermark be used within each packet of the stream. It is also contemplated that the watermark may contain no QoS indicator, in which case, all of the bits allocated for the watermark may be used for a unique identifier such as that associated with a particular watermark packet key.

The WID holds all of the dependent data. There is only one 32-bit watermark assigned for each stream, and one WID created. The Watermark Packet Key may be reused. So the WID may look like this:

4 bytes (32 bit watermark, inclusive of any QoS indicator)

512 bytes (4096 bit Watermark Packet Key)

20 bytes (hash output from the first block of the flow of data steam)

20 bytes (hash output from the second block of the flow)

20 bytes (hash output from the third block of the flow)

. . .

20 bytes (hash output from the last block of the flow)

The size of the blocks used for hash input may be determined by the ratio described below.

Each router along the path of the flow can read the watermark and determine its QoS by using those bits associated with the QoS indicator (in this case, the 4 MSB's of the watermark). Each router can then take appropriate action for prioritizing or deprioritizing each packet. These actions might include: choosing a path based on load, reliability, or latency, or buffering lower priority packets for later delivery.

The router may be configured to check the authenticity of each packet. Preferably, a router may be configured to check a subset of the packets for authenticity (thereby, reducing overhead computational requirements). For example, copies of a predetermined, small percentage of watermarked packets may be diverted to a sniffer. Preferably, the sniffer has received the WID's for all authorized flows either before receiving the flows or in a time frame that is contemporaneous. The snifter compares the watermark of the copied packet to its WID table to find the appropriate WID. If a corresponding watermarking key is not identified, the packets are deemed unauthorized and the router is instructed to deprioritize, or, preferably, to block the flow of inauthentic data. If a corresponding WID is found, the sniffer calculates a hash output (for example, using the SHA-1 hash of this example) for the packet and attempts to match it to the corresponding hash in the WID. If the hash values match, then the router permits the flow to continue on its path. If the hash values do not match, the packets are deemed un-authenticated, and the router is notified.

Preferably, the watermark generator software is responsible for maintaining a specific list of sniffers that are to receive the WID. For each one of these, the WID is preferably sent encrypted and signed, using a public key technology, such as PKIX certificates or Open PGP keys. It is envisioned that the watermark generator will be responsible for delivering the WID to trading partners who have established a prior business arrangement, and the WID will be passed along to additional devices by the trading partners, thus eliminating scaling problems at the sender. These may comprise, moreover, functions handled by the exchange and clearinghouse features of the present invention, disclosed below.

It is contemplated that the present invention may permit control over a ratio of the sizes of the original data to the size of the WID made from that data. A typical ratio might be 100:1, which means that every 100 bytes of original data create 1 byte of hash. Generally, it is desirable for a sniffer to collect 2.times. 2 the original number of bytes to guarantee enough data to calculate a hash, given that the sniffer does not know a priori what the original size of the number of bytes. For very large flows, 100:1 may create unacceptable large WID's. The ratio can be set to any value. As the ratio decreases, the WID delivery channel needs to get larger. As the ratio increases, the amount of original content necessary to the sniffer increases, as does the amount of the flow that can pass before an authorization check can be completed. By making the ratio sensitive to data type and size, the system can be dynamically optimized to meet the needs of the market. To more fully extend the benefits of this embodiment we generalize additional novel features absent in the art concerning, management, pricing mechanisms, clearinghouse and dispute resolution methods and systems.

Exchange and Provisioning for Bandwidth Optimizations

Defining the Value of Bandwidth Rights

It is an object of the present invention to create methods for allocating bandwidth resources. One approach is to break the bandwidth into discrete, usable component pieces, and enable an electronic market system to set a price for the commodity (“the bandwidth”) setting an equilibrium level of supply and demand. The net effect of this approach, and its anticipated trading system, will be to efficiently apportion bandwidth to users who wish to download or upload value-added information, in whatever form it takes (including value-adding components, or VACs—disclosed in TRUSTED TRANSACTIONS—). This includes efforts to broadcast or stream data as well. Bandwidth affects the speed of information transfer. Bandwidth is defined as bits per second. If more bandwidth is used, speed increases, and the transfer is accomplished in less time. A need exists in the art for deciding which bits should be prioritized versus the fixed amount of time available to route or transmit the bits. Valuing bits in a bandwidth context is similar to quantizing risk in other commodities' transactions.

Mathematical techniques exist which are applied to financial instruments to break risk down into discrete components to better predict or forecast financial decisions. Better measures of risk assist in making better decisions concerning the allocation of resources. Allocation of bandwidth resources is another increasingly important financial decision in an information economy. These may include investment decisions or insurance decisions. Investment decisions regard the choice to allocate financial resources in a manner to optimize the return on the investment. Insurance is designed to use actuarial estimates of a given data object or commodities' history and condition to estimate a cost for covering the potential loss or damage of the data object. Because it is difficult to predict what data object (thus, bandwidth) will be demanded and thus how to assist in estimating the potential economic value of such demand for a given network, pricing models need to be used to assist in quantizing risk, exchange mechanisms are required to facilitate trades, and cryptographic protocol applied to assure confidence in the provisioning of bandwidth.

Focus has been made on options pricing models, such as the well-known Black-Scholes option pricing mechanism, and variations which exist to better estimate and quantize risk for a commodity that is being optioned (so-called “derivatives”). Given the imprecise nature of bandwidth allocation, without regard to decisions concerning the supply and demand of said bandwidth, the present invention introduces a number of improvements to the handling of data (e.g., provisioning) and by extension the bandwidth used to represent said data. Some of the mathematical techniques for pricing models, including Black Scholes, will be outlined below. These techniques can be used to facilitate better pricing in addition to the increased efficiencies evident with bandwidth provisioning using packet watermarking described above (applied to packets and in some cases additionally the data object—a micro and macro approach). Bandwidth is a commodity and by extension a potential form of currency that is better priced with financial tools such as options and other derivatives. Being able to communicate only that which people are willing to pay for, requires integration of identification and authentication of bandwidth between parties.

Black-Scholes is easily represented by the following properties, which can be further generalized mathematically. The standard deviation of the asset's value (that which is optioned) multiplied by the square root of the time of the option's expiration. Essentially a ratio of the asset value to the present value of the option's strike price. The strike price is the price at which the option is being offered and later exercised.

Simply:

First) Standard deviation of the asset's value multiplied by the time of the expiration of the option=

Second) The underlying asset value/the present value of the option's exercise price option exercise price/(interest rate) superscript time of the option

To purchase or to sell is the difference in the right of the option that is called a “call” or a “put” (the right but not obligation to “sell”, a call is the right to “buy”, the underlying asset covered by the option).

More generally, the Black-Scholes equation is as follows:
C.sub.0=S.sub.0N(d.sub.1)=Xe.sup.−rf.sup.TN (d.sub.2) C0=S0N(d1)-Xe-rfTN(d2)

Where

S.sub.0S0=the price of the underlying asset (a predetermined value)

N(d.sub.1)N(d1)=the cumulative normal probability of unit normal variable d.sub.1d1

N(d.sub.2)N(d2)=the cumulative normal probability of unit normal variable d.sub.2d2

X=the exercise price

T=the time to expiration or maturity of the option

r.sub.frf=the risk free rate (a value which can be predetermined at the time of pricing the option)

e=the base of natural logarithms, constant=2.7128 . . .

d.sub.1=[(ln(S/X)+r.sub.ff)/(.sigma.{square root}T)]+[1/(2.sigma. {s-quare root} T)┐ d1=[(ln(S/X)+rfT)/(τ√T)]+[1/(2τ√T)]

d.sub.2=d.sub.1−.sigma.{square root}T d2=d1-τ√T

Helpfully, by isomorphic relationships we can extend the Black Scholes model to discrete mathematics which, as is known in the art, is able to handle continuous time and proof of the limit of options pricing. The present invention sets a limit for how much we can know in estimating the price of the option given both objective (that which can be predetermined) and subjective (that which like “indeterminable” or “unpredictable” risk cannot be predetermined) data elements. Making Black Scholes discrete also enables the present invention to describe more concretely aspects of optimizing bandwidth as an asset for which risk exists in how it should be allocated or used.

If an individual instance of the present invention's proposed instrument is a bandwidth right (as well, by extension an “option” which is the right but not obligation to purchase the underlying covered commodity within some predetermined period of time: in this case bandwidth), it can be observed that several factors will affect its value, including the following:

Intrinsic Value

This value is measured versus a minimal standard telecommunications cost. Telecommunications infrastructure has obvious relationships with the potential cost of carrying or allocating bandwidth. Intrinsic value may differ between providers, geographic location, wired or wireless connections, and countries. To the extent there exist such differences in pricing, elements of the present invention can create cost equivalencies based on such observable differences and identify the difference in cost. If there is a single underlying telecommunications cost to the owner of the right of X dollars per time, let min.sub.0 min0 represent the amount of time it takes to download the information using the minimal bandwidth, and mini represent the amount of time to transfer the information at the bandwidth represented by this right. Note that

    • min.sub.0.gtoreq.min.sub.1.min0≧min1.

Then the intrinsic value V.sub.X.times.(min.sub.0−min. sub.1), V1=X(min0−min1), or the amount of money saved in telecommunications costs at the higher bandwidth. The intrinsic value can be negative, which would imply a compensating premium placed on the time saved by using the more expensive transport.

Percentage Chance of Failure

This probability recognizes the generally unreliable nature of telecommunications and transmission mediums as well as underlying computer systems. There are basic and more advanced methods for estimating the so-called Quality of Service (“QoS”) of a given network which, as previously disclosed, estimates a raw measure of the percentage of bandwidth being offered to some number of users connected to network in question in capacity terms. To equate QoS with historical peer-to-peer, or end-to-end, handling of bandwidth, features of the present invention are directed. Rather than be burdened with the task of solving all of the “bugs” in a given piece of commercial software, or network, it would be better to account for failure in the valuation. This value could be adjusted over time, as the failure probability of a system becomes more apparent, or changes. Some actuarial measurement can be made as experience with the envisioned system is realized. Additionally, heuristic measures may be logged or stored to identify specific points of failures or inefficiencies to be addressed. Reputations or recognition for particular users or providers can assist in decisions made by other market participants. In short, “percentage chance of failure” represents the percentage chance a user cannot exercise its right or option (where the option is the right but not obligation to purchase an underlying asset) for bandwidth. It affects the expected value of the right. In this baseline approach, if the probability of failure is P.sub.f Pf, where 0.1toreq.P.sub.f.1-toreq.1 0≦Pf≦1, and the value of the right is V.sub.0 V0, in the absence of failure, then:
V.sub.f=(1−P.sub.f)V.sub.0 Vf=(1−Pf)V0.

Convenience Premium

This represents some premium, V.sub.C VC, that a person is willing to pay to transfer their information within a specified period of time (i.e. “now” or “in the next 10 minutes”). The cost to the network to achieving the demand of individual users may require predetermined estimates of how much bandwidth can be re-allocated to a user in demand or may be dynamically adjusted by factoring in some excess bandwidth to serve as liquidity for estimates of potential demand. For instance, highly sought after data objects or data streams may cause higher demands for bandwidth in real time or may be reserved by exercising the right before its expiration. An exchange itself may wish to pay for the rights to provide additional needed liquidity to satisfy forecasted demand. The potential for increases in transparency by applying bandwidth provisioning, described herein, and cryptographic protocols for identification, authentication and verification, described in more detail below, make possible better mathematical estimates of the potential value of the convenience premium to all market participants.

Alternatively, the network may have higher demand which is consistent with more predictable peak periods of time of use by consumers, for instance between 4 pm and 7 pm on weekdays for consumer back from work or school. These rules can be used to filter and achieve better estimates of how bandwidth should be allocated. The rules may apply to: 1) particular or uniquely identifiable data objects 2) whether the data object is to be streamed 3) date or time schedules 4) geographic locations of either the provider or user 5) the hardware or software which underlies the network for which the bandwidth is being sought 6) other unique circumstances including live performances. Moreover, identification of the parties involved in a particular transmission may itself act as a contributing factor to increases in the value of the convenience premium: a form of recognition or reputation. The premium is also likely to come out as the market sets the price for a right. If there is a formula for what the price should be, then the premium is simply the difference between the result of that formula, and the actual market price. This really measures the balance between supply and demand. The more demand in excess of supply, the higher C will rise. V.sub.C VC is then a function of supply and demand.
V.sub.real=V.sub.theoretical+V.sub.C Vreal=Vtheoretical+VC

Time Value

This is a function of the exercise period of a bandwidth right. It is proportional to P.sub.f Pf, since more time allows for recovery from an individual failure to transfer. There are two components of time, over what period a transfer can be initiated and for how long the transfer can last once it is initiated. Note that this is made more complex by congestion factors. For instance, if a user has a right for 10,000 kbps for 10 seconds, and the user wants to transfer 100,000 kb, it is not likely that the transfer can be done in exactly 10 seconds. Protocol overhead and congestion will add some increment of time. It is advisable to leave room in the exercise period for these factors, rather than trying to value the time value in some manner that accounts for these transient conditions.

Features of the present invention provision for additional data and time overhead to handle congestion with market-based features. Additionally by utilizing the features previously disclosed concerning bandwidth packet watermarking, time value can be more highly granular and identifiable. Certainly, optimizing the flow of bandwidth while creating accounting and clearinghouse mechanisms for handling existing and speculative demand for bandwidth resources is a novel and beneficial feature over the prior art.
Thus: 1V=(1−Pf) (VI+VT+VC)=(1−Pf)[(X(min0−min1))+VT+VC)]

1 V = ( 1 - P f ) ( V I + V T + V C ) = ( 1 - P f ) [ ( X ( min 0 - min 1 ) ) + V T + V C ) ]

The convenience premium, V.sub.C VC, should be independent of all other values (except V). The equation behaves as follows: With increased failure probability decreasing bandwidth rights value, independent of other variables, while increased demand relative to supply would drive up V.sub.C VC. We might try to compute V.sub.C VC by accounting for known demand and supply values, and in fact, it is of vital importance to know the supply, and to allocate it so that any right issued can be exercised within its exercise period.

Clearinghouse Functions

Additionally, it is observed that a method and system is needed to allocate supply based on demand that accounts for unused rights. This may be separate or complementary to the packet watermarking features previously disclosed or may be considered an additional feature to assure that bandwidth provisioning is properly accounted for. In other words, the system needs to over-allocate supply to some degree, knowing that some rights may go unexercised, so that demand is filled as much as possible. This is similar to airlines' practice of overbooking flights. It is also necessary in providing liquidity to the market and assuring that bandwidth is effectively allocated in a timely and efficient manner. Some mechanism must be in place to prevent attacks on the system, by a party, who, in effect, tries to corner the market in bandwidth, with no intention of using it, so that it goes unused. By extension, Denial of Service attacks are related o this unwanted occurrence. Naively, one would think that since one has to pay for the bandwidth, why would someone want to corner the market? Although bandwidth is not “free”, it should only comprise a small fraction of the value of the information to be transferred, and so this is not an unthinkable situation. Similarly, the accounting of the bandwidth used should not exceed the value of bandwidth provided. An accountant cannot charge more than the value being accounted, the economics cannot justify the cost. By breaking down the path of packets as well as provisioning for pricing based on supply and demand, features of the present invention address accountability in a transparent manner.

As well, ISPs and other providers of information must be able to engage in competitive bidding, or arbitrage, for the cost of the bandwidth they purchase and better map these purchases with demand patterns of their users or demands being made by other vendors who currently engage in sharing bandwidth resources to enable a freer flow of information across public networks. The likeliest preventive measure is the existence of competition in transmission. Additionally the methods and system contemplated herein include provisions for clearinghouse facilities and accountability handled by trusted third parties. Transactions for the rights, options and the actual trading of bandwidth can include secure time stamps, digital signatures, digital certificates, and other cryptographic protocols to enable independent third party verification and accountability. These features can be offered in real time or may be saved in separate, secure storage facilities for assisting in settlements. Where two parties may have competitive interests in any given transaction contemplated herein, secure, cryptographic credentials (such as, digital signature, secure digital watermarks, digital certificates, and the like) have obvious value to enhancing the success of an efficient bandwidth exchange. These issues are disclosed below.

Secondary Markets

Another option is the potential need to necessitate a secondary market for the trading of bandwidth, which could be divided up by a trading syndicate, and traded on a secondary basis to users. In a manner of operations, telecommunications companies perform this role between national telecommunications systems to facilitate international phone usage. But the difference with the system envisioned in the present system is that “any” user could buy bandwidth rights at times of low demand, and hope to sell them at a profit in times of higher demand. This would seem to imply the exchange itself should do some proprietary trading in this manner, both to profit, and to ensure some bandwidth is available for sale to users when they need it. This will have a purpose to serve in making the market efficient in the future. The present invention anticipates such facilities which can be created and handled by parties with an interest in the efficiencies and potential profit opportunities afforded to maximizing the value of bits being handled by any given network, or networks. Time being typically fixed for users, value of the data objects being offered being subjective, features of the present invention offer robust handling of supply and demand of bandwidth.

Bandwidth rights instruments are likely to be highly localized to specific subnets, domains, internet service providers (“ISPs”, portals, wireless networks, etc). Especially since certain types of connections may be available only from certain exchanges, and since failure probabilities are likely to vary with specific hardware, operating systems, and service providers (including ISPs). Additionally, the basic valuation equations above do not address telecommunications costs across various types of lines. This problem at least, can be solved by active maintenance of cost tables, designation codes for types of lines, and the designation of a low cost standard: a minimal intrinsic value to bandwidth is an example of a minimum cost. Secondary markets for the cash or cash equivalent value of bandwidth given the limitations of a particular means for bandwidth exchanges, including POTs, DSL, cable, fiber, wireless, etc., is enabled by features of the present invention given the link between supply and demand, additions of rights and options for time value, and the cost of bandwidth for objects being exchanged or streamed, in satisfying demand.

Bandwidth as “Currency” Between Exchanges

The problem of moving rights between exchanges can be difficult since supply/demand planning for one exchange will not translate to another, unless some means for interconnecting exchanges is developed, and exchange bandwidth planning is global. The race by many parties to link users to the Internet via varying access links (modem) including DSL, POTs, cable, fiber, wireless, satellite may further the need for common bandwidth pricing. In fact, improved handling of bandwidth is a result of the success of TCP/IP and the vendors who have integrated much of the public Internet as well as gateways to virtual private networks (“VPNs”). What is clear is that the basic structure of the present invention would facilitate such planning to the benefit of all market participants: telecommunications providers, ISPs, users and publishers as well as more general aggregators of content and bandwidth such as, phone companies, cable companies, personal digital assistant manufacturers, personal music device manufacturers, and satellite companies intending on providing services across multifarious line types.

Accountability and Cryptographic Credentials

By securitizing bandwidth rights, the creation and supply of bandwidth rights digital certificates, made unique by cryptographic methods to manage them, will also be necessary. Transferring traditional digital certificates between individuals is complicated and unnecessary without tying such cryptographic credentials into the functions of the exchange. The three main categories are: advertisement or publicly available information concerning the bandwidth rights certificates, facilities for handling the identities and financial credentials of the market of buyers and sellers, and a facility for completing or settling transactions. Independent oversight concerning disputes resolution are anticipated and benefit from the level of cryptographic protocol utilized in the present invention. Following the general principles of a securities clearing model is highly applicable. In this case, the exchange needs to create and manage an account for each party that can own or trade bandwidth rights. Additionally, a method for authenticating said party or parties is required. Use of public key infrastructure, including digital credentials such as certificates, as well as adding the additional feature of embedding these credentials into data being traded by means of a steganographic cipher or digital watermark, are clearly absent in the prior art.

Additional facilities for accountability may include digital signatures (including such variants as one time signatures, zero-knowledge proof signatures, etc.). Separating recognition or general search facilities, i.e. market data in which participants decide to enter into transactions, from transactional, audit-type facilities have the likely impact of improving the handling of noncommercial and commercial activities for the network as it balances bandwidth needs. Additionally, as all the data being handled for exchange function and fulfillment can be measured in terms of bandwidth, the present invention serves as a basis for increasing the likelihood of enabling bandwidth to act as currency for information data, as well as optimizing the economic use of telecommunications networks. With these elements, a trading market system can be implemented by the following methods:

The EXCHANGE creates and manages a supply of uniquely distinguished bandwidth rights certificates. These certificates are good for a specific period only. They may traded over the course of time, anywhere from the moment they are created to the expiration time. It is questionable whether a right should be exercisable once it is clear that even if a transfer is initiated, it cannot be completed given that right only. However, consider that the right is usable, but its value decreases rapidly as it approaches expiration (i.e. value is based on time left, not total transfer time). Once a certificate is expired it is deleted. Inclusion of more traditional notions of options, as previously disclosed would greatly assist in measuring and quantifying risk associated with bandwidth rights certificates. Hash values incorporating a time-stamp could be used to serialize certificates. Such a cryptographic method is well noted in the art. U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,136,646 and 5,136,647 (“Digital Document Time-Stamping With Catenate Certificate” and “Method For Secure Time-Stamping Of Digital Documents” respectively) describe methods for cryptographic time stamping. Besides “universal time,” used for secure time stamps, other methods for data uniqueness include digital signatures or one-way hash functions alone. These elements may include information relating to an independent third party, the exchange where the transaction takes place, an agent or principal to a transaction, a certification authority, or some subset of the data may be handled anonymously to assure levels of anonymity which may be required in assuring higher efficiencies in handling and settling trades for bandwidth rights certificates and the associated bandwidth.

One way would be to extend the attributes of a traditional digital certificate by incorporating the present inventions novel features of how bandwidth is to be provisioned, as previously disclosed in connection with packet watermarking or faster routing processes including application of Reed Solomon or other error correction codes to network data handling, and any mechanism which can be adjusted to reflect the real-time or future price of the bandwidth certificate. If the available price is immediately based on some impending expiration of the validity period of the bandwidth right itself, OR the validity of the bandwidth rights cryptographic certificate, if the actual period of time the cryptographic attributes saved in the digital certificate is close to expiration, this value may become infinitesimal as expiration occurs. For instance an X.509 digital certificate contains the following elements:

1) Version of X.509 2) serial number of the certificate 3) the certificate holder's public key 4) the certificate holder's unique ID 5) the certificate validity period 6) The unique name of the certificate issuer 7) the digital signature of the issuer and 8) the identity of the signature algorithm.

Fields for 1) handling the bandwidth to be transacted, as per the previous discussion on how to route bandwidth packets (including the previously discussed Reed Solomon variation on transmitting packets in chunks to speed overall transmission); 2) a field for a pricing scheme; and 3) a field for additional information to assist with the pricing scheme, such as a Black Scholes options field, could be supported to handle particular embodiments of the present invention. In some cases, the certificate may not require all of the elements as they pertain to bandwidth trading and could include, at the very least:

1) The digital signature of the certificate owner (this might include the unique information relating to the exchange or hub for which the certificate is being considered for trade, especially if pricing differs amongst a plurality of similar exchanges) 2) unique ID of the certificate holder (including, for instance, a buyer, seller, or agent, and any unique information or ID for which the certificate holder is committing the certificate to any of a plurality of exchanges) 3) the certificate validity period (for the present invention, this would apply to either the validity of the cryptographics employed in the certificate or the period in which the price or price equivalent value, for instance an buy or sell option or futures price, is valid) 4) the identity of the cryptographic algorithm[s] which is used by the certificate owner. 5) the identity of the pricing mechanism used (including provisions for Black-Scholes or similar options pricing models, futures, or other similar mechanisms)

Additionally, use restrictions or rules associated with the bandwidth being contracted for/to can be added as additional fields. These might include predetermined agreements which assist in defining the application of the bandwidth right to an applicable market or markets. There may also be provisions for including functional data, software or executable computer code, or algorithms, to the bandwidth right cryptographic certificate to reduce computational overhead at the sender or receiver end of a transmission.

The exchange creates a central hub, or plurality of hubs, for planning bandwidth supply, accounting, and disseminating pricing information. This hub may take the form of a syndication or plurality of similarly suited exchanges or there may be exchange rate features to account for differences between telecommunications costs in a given locality or geographic location (such as a country, city or states). Differences may exist between exchanges in the types of cryptographic protocols which are used by the exchange, as well. Alternatively, the differences between how pricing information is disseminated between various exchanges will relate specifically to the cost of the telecommunications (i.e., “intrinsic value”) based on the form of deployment (POTS versus cable) or spectrum being handled (wireless 900 MHz versus 3G). In some cases, spectrum allocation may suffer from other market pressures in pricing including government control or some other similar restriction for how the bandwidth may be allocated or used. Client-side software will value the rights relative to a particular user's needs, and used by any party trading rights. A seller creates a SELL advertisement, which is entered into the “exchange.” The exchange verifies the seller actually holds the right in their account.

The exchange may further maintain records regarding the reputations of the market of SELLERS and BUYERS who have traded on the exchange. Additionally, embodiments of the present invention may separate the trading facility from the facilities for advertising BUY and SELL orders. A buyer then enters a BUY offer against the sell advertisement. The exchange validates the buyers and sellers, and then clears the transaction, transferring money from the buyer's payment method or credentials (credit card, micropayment, payment facility, credit terms, etc.) to the seller's account, and the right to the buyer's account. The unbundled right may be so infinitesimal that the actual cost of the right must be bundled with the underlying content or information being sought. The rights could also be bound to underlying titles (by an associated hash or digital signature or an embedded digital watermark). Essentially the relative cost of the bandwidth right represents some small amount of bandwidth, satisfactory in serving as a cryptographic or trusted piece of information, which is factored into various classes of trades so that higher computational efficiencies can be maintained. As certain bandwidth certificate attributes are used more frequently, perhaps, than others who are buyers or sellers or both, of bandwidth rights, smaller more compact amounts of bandwidth will likely be result as improvements and experience dictate. This may be similar to attaching sales taxes, handling charges, and credit card use charges that are typically bundled with the cost of a given physical goods purchase. The underlying telecommunications cost (i.e., “intrinsic value”), the underlying computational cost of the bandwidth certificate and its attributes, as well as additional information overhead for accounting and clearing trades, would represent the cost floor in computational cost, bandwidth, and time for embodiments contemplated herein.

When bandwidth is actually traded some link between the original trade for the bandwidth being supplied may be hashed or signed and used as a transaction receipt for the data that is later sent using the transacted bandwidth. This data can alternatively serve as a record of trades for dispute resolution or accounting to keep all participants informed. Once the actual transacted bandwidth is used by an end user, embedding bandwidth rights, bandwidth certificates, transaction related unique information (for instance, hashes, signatures, times stamps, etc.) with digital watermarking technology has the further benefit of keeping the file size of the bandwidth once it is used in the form of a data object being exchanged or streamed. It is clearly an option with benefits for embodiments of the present invention. Again, a separate certification authority or government-agency may ultimately serve as the arbiter of trust in enabling economic, transparent and liquid markets for bandwidth use.

Sample Embodiment

User A has a cellular phone and a personal digital assistant (“PDA”). He pays a fixed rate of $100 per month for 1000 minutes of cellular air time (which equates to $0.00167 per second). There are times at which this rate may be higher or lower or locations for which charges may be assessed when the use utilizes either device in some geographic location outside of, for instance, the location where the devices were registered for use. The user alternatively pays $200 per month for 1000 minutes for PDA connectivity (which equates to $0.00333 per second), which may include e-mail functions, image or audio file downloads or streams, and any other functionality commonly attributable to a general computing device such as a PC. The PDA may also place a cost structure on where the device is used in relation to its registration location and may charge for the amount of data which is uploaded, downloaded or exchanged. This may be measured in bandwidth terms (such as a charge per some amount of bytes or bits). The functionality being different for each device, an arbitrage opportunity exists if the user can trade his cellular phone minutes for PDA minutes. The benefits in this example are a 2:1 ratio of expense.

User A may want to use either of the devices in the example to make some purchase of a good or service which can be handled by the device itself. The security for the transaction must have been previously agreed to by the vendor providing the goods and the provider of the device for which embodiments of the present invention can be used to facilitate a commercial transaction. For instance, a vending machine which can handle transmissions from either of the two devices to enable a transaction for a can of soda or a weather forecast, or some other valued consideration, is a device with which the present invention has applicability. The user has bandwidth rights which may be separate from the minutes that have been paid for solely for the functions of the respective device. The user may use a valid or existing bandwidth rights certificate to represent a payment facility for which the cellular or PDA bandwidth provider can monitor and account. If the transaction can be handled with the vending machine, for instance a wireless exchange of credentials between the vending machine and user's device, value has been attributed to the use of bandwidth. The cellular phone, in this example is the cheaper mode of bandwidth based strictly on functionality. The PDA provider may change its pricing to reflect transaction specific pricing to have competitive payment facilities based on bandwidth rights certificates and higher value added services to the customer.

The point of this embodiment is to emphasize the treatment of bandwidth as a commodity which may be valued in a transaction. The value inherent in information content or the facility of information itself to assist in transactional activity is valuable in an information economy. The time it takes for sender and receiver confirmation of a transaction between the user and the vending machine may take, say 5 seconds. The time spent in completing the transaction includes how much information was exchanged, in some quantitative measure such as bits, to satisfy the rules of a successful transaction. If the vending machine item is one dollar, the cost of the transaction is one dollar plus the cost of 5 seconds of air time that was used to consummate the transaction. Hence the total cost is: $1.00+5.times.$0.00167 5$0.00167 (or $1.00833), if the cell phone is used; or $1.00+5.times.$0.00333 5$0.00333 (or $1.01667), if the PDA is used. The cost of the goods or services sold leaves a margin of profit. There is a relationship to the efficiencies of increasing the convenience of a means of payment for users, increasing the ability of traditional bandwidth providers to leverage existing subscriptions and arrangements with customers, and the ability to atomize bandwidth as a valued commodity given its inherent nature: it is a measure of information in discrete time.

Sample Embodiment

In this embodiment we use bandwidth to purchase other information resources such as kilowatts of power from a utility power grid. As such, bandwidth acts as a currency which has a defined (though perhaps fluctuating) value. The amount of bandwidth that is used to “purchase” a specified amount of power will be determined based on the market forces at play. The total amount of bandwidth will be the cost of the goods being purchased (in this case, the specified amount of power) plus the cost of the bandwidth used to complete the transaction—which may vary with the communication channel being used (e.g., the use of a PDA vs. the a use of a cell phone). In effect, “bandwidth” is removed from my account in an amount necessary to complete the transaction. To further illustrate this point, it is assumed that the amount of power being purchased is valued at $50, and it is further assumed that the transaction requires 5 seconds of air time to complete. If the purchaser has an account balance of 60,000 seconds of air time (equating to 1,000 minutes), and the fair market value of the air time is $0.00167 per second, then the purchaser's account is debited 29,945 seconds (equating to $50.00835—in other words, the $50 for the power plus the cost of the air time to complete the transaction). In some circumstances, the total cost may be increased if there is a transactional cost in addition to the cost of goods and the cost of air time. For example, if the airtime is tied to a credit card, the credit card company may charge a transactional fee (e.g., 1% or more) for all transactions executed in connection with the credit card, in which case, the credit card may debit the purchaser's account an additional 1% of air time (by way of example) which the credit card company may utilize for internal purposes or may turn around and re-sell to another user.

Other embodiments and uses of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from consideration of the specification and practice of the invention disclosed herein. All references cited herein, including all U.S. and foreign patents and patent applications, are specifically and entirely hereby incorporated by reference herein. It is intended that the specification and examples be considered exemplary only, with the true scope and spirit of the invention indicated by the claims below. As will be easily understood by those of ordinary skill in the art, variations and modifications of each of the disclosed embodiments can be easily made within the scope of this invention as defined by the claims below.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US39478257 May 197530 Mar 1976International Business Machines CorporationAbstracting system for index search machine
US398462425 Jul 19745 Oct 1976Weston Instruments, Inc.Video system for conveying digital and analog information
US398662416 Nov 197319 Oct 1976International Incinerators, Inc.Disposal feeding system including selective container control
US40385962 Jul 197526 Jul 1977E M I LimitedMethod and apparatus for authenticating a record medium consisting of applying two different strength magnetizing fields and monitoring the remanent fields
US42007706 Sep 197729 Apr 1980Stanford UniversityCryptographic apparatus and method
US42185826 Oct 197719 Aug 1980The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior UniversityPublic key cryptographic apparatus and method
US43391345 Jul 197713 Jul 1982Rockwell International CorporationElectronic card game
US439089823 Mar 198128 Jun 1983Northern Telecom LimitedScrambling and unscrambling video signals in a pay TV system
US440582914 Dec 197720 Sep 1983Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyCryptographic communications system and method
US44244141 May 19783 Jan 1984Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior UniversityExponentiation cryptographic apparatus and method
US452858825 Sep 19819 Jul 1985Loefberg BoMethod and apparatus for marking the information content of an information carrying signal
US467260520 Mar 19849 Jun 1987Applied Spectrum Technologies, Inc.Data and voice communications system
US47486689 Jul 198631 May 1988Yeda Research And Development Company LimitedMethod, apparatus and article for identification and signature
US478992830 Jan 19876 Dec 1988Flex Japan Inc.Auction information transmission processing
US482750814 Oct 19862 May 1989Personal Library Software, Inc.Database usage metering and protection system and method
US48766175 May 198724 Oct 1989Thorn Emi PlcSignal identification
US489627510 Jul 198723 Jan 1990Bull Hn Information Systems Inc.Full page graphics image display data reduction
US490887313 May 198313 Mar 1990Philibert Alex CDocument reproduction security system
US493951530 Sep 19883 Jul 1990General Electric CompanyDigital signal encoding and decoding apparatus
US496920429 Nov 19896 Nov 1990Eastman Kodak CompanyHybrid residual-based hierarchical storage and display method for high resolution digital images in a multiuse environment
US497247115 May 198920 Nov 1990Gary GrossEncoding system
US497759416 Feb 198911 Dec 1990Electronic Publishing Resources, Inc.Database usage metering and protection system and method
US49792108 Jul 198818 Dec 1990Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Method and apparatus for protection of signal copy
US49807823 Jun 198525 Dec 1990Peter GinkelSoftware protection and identification system
US50502136 Aug 199017 Sep 1991Electronic Publishing Resources, Inc.Database usage metering and protection system and method
US507392513 Jun 199017 Dec 1991Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Method and apparatus for the protection of signal copy
US507766525 May 198931 Dec 1991Reuters LimitedDistributed matching system
US511153030 Oct 19895 May 1992Sony CorporationDigital audio signal generating apparatus
US511343725 Oct 198912 May 1992Thorn Emi PlcSignal identification system
US51365812 Jul 19904 Aug 1992At&T Bell LaboratoriesArrangement for reserving and allocating a plurality of competing demands for an ordered bus communication network
US51366468 Mar 19914 Aug 1992Bell Communications Research, Inc.Digital document time-stamping with catenate certificate
US51366472 Aug 19904 Aug 1992Bell Communications Research, Inc.Method for secure time-stamping of digital documents
US51425766 May 199125 Aug 1992Market Data CorporationSystem for securely providing restricted video information
US51612108 Nov 19893 Nov 1992U.S. Philips CorporationCoder for incorporating an auxiliary information signal in a digital audio signal, decoder for recovering such signals from the combined signal, and record carrier having such combined signal recorded thereon
US52108202 May 199011 May 1993Broadcast Data Systems Limited PartnershipSignal recognition system and method
US524342320 Dec 19917 Sep 1993A. C. Nielsen CompanySpread spectrum digital data transmission over TV video
US524351530 Oct 19907 Sep 1993Lee Wayne MSecure teleprocessing bidding system
US528740723 May 199115 Feb 1994International Business Machines CorporationComputer software protection
US531973517 Dec 19917 Jun 1994Bolt Beranek And Newman Inc.Embedded signalling
US53275204 Jun 19925 Jul 1994At&T Bell LaboratoriesMethod of use of voice message coder/decoder
US53414294 Dec 199223 Aug 1994Testdrive CorporationTransformation of ephemeral material
US53414776 Aug 199323 Aug 1994Digital Equipment CorporationBroker for computer network server selection
US536344830 Jun 19938 Nov 1994United Technologies Automotive, Inc.Pseudorandom number generation and cryptographic authentication
US53655869 Apr 199315 Nov 1994Washington UniversityMethod and apparatus for fingerprinting magnetic media
US536970727 Jan 199329 Nov 1994Tecsec IncorporatedSecure network method and apparatus
US537934529 Jan 19933 Jan 1995Radio Audit Systems, Inc.Method and apparatus for the processing of encoded data in conjunction with an audio broadcast
US53943248 Dec 199328 Feb 1995Xerox CorporationAuction-based control system for energy resource management in a building
US539828530 Dec 199314 Mar 1995Motorola, Inc.Method for generating a password using public key cryptography
US540662728 Dec 199211 Apr 1995Nec Home Electronics, Ltd.Digital data cryptographic system
US540850529 Oct 199318 Apr 1995Washington UniversityMethod and apparatus for process control, tension control, and testing of magnetic media
US541059827 Sep 199425 Apr 1995Electronic Publishing Resources, Inc.Database usage metering and protection system and method
US541271813 Sep 19932 May 1995Institute Of Systems ScienceMethod for utilizing medium nonuniformities to minimize unauthorized duplication of digital information
US54187135 Aug 199323 May 1995Allen; RichardApparatus and method for an on demand data delivery system for the preview, selection, retrieval and reproduction at a remote location of previously recorded or programmed materials
US542860630 Jun 199327 Jun 1995Moskowitz; Scott A.Digital information commodities exchange
US545049031 Mar 199412 Sep 1995The Arbitron CompanyApparatus and methods for including codes in audio signals and decoding
US546953621 May 199321 Nov 1995Imageware Software, Inc.Image editing system including masking capability
US547153320 May 199428 Nov 1995Symbol Technologies, Inc.Record with encoded data
US547899014 Oct 199326 Dec 1995Coleman Environmental Systems, Inc.Method for tracking the production history of food products
US54792107 Jun 199426 Dec 1995Quantel, Ltd.Video image processing system having variable data compression
US548716820 Dec 199423 Jan 1996International Business Machines CorporationMethod and system for global optimization of device allocation
US54936778 Jun 199420 Feb 1996Systems Research & Applications CorporationGeneration, archiving, and retrieval of digital images with evoked suggestion-set captions and natural language interface
US549741919 Apr 19945 Mar 1996Prima Facie, Inc.Method and apparatus for recording sensor data
US550679518 Feb 19939 Apr 1996Yamakawa; TakeshiApparatus and method for generating chaotic signals and chaos device
US55131264 Oct 199330 Apr 1996Xerox CorporationNetwork having selectively accessible recipient prioritized communication channel profiles
US551326129 Dec 199330 Apr 1996At&T Corp.Key management scheme for use with electronic cards
US553073918 Mar 199225 Jun 1996Fujitsu LimitedMail center management system
US553075130 Jun 199425 Jun 1996Hewlett-Packard CompanyEmbedded hidden identification codes in digital objects
US55307591 Feb 199525 Jun 1996International Business Machines CorporationColor correct digital watermarking of images
US553973528 Dec 199423 Jul 1996Moskowitz; Scott A.Digital information commodities exchange
US554857921 Jun 199520 Aug 1996International Business Machines CorporationSystem for effective allocation of network-wide bandwidth
US556857030 Sep 199422 Oct 1996Eastman Kodak CompanyMethod and apparatus for reducing quantization artifacts in a hierarchical image storage and retrieval system
US557912428 Feb 199526 Nov 1996The Arbitron CompanyMethod and apparatus for encoding/decoding broadcast or recorded segments and monitoring audience exposure thereto
US558170329 Jun 19933 Dec 1996International Business Machines CorporationMethod and apparatus for reserving system resources to assure quality of service
US558348828 Apr 199510 Dec 1996Sala; Nicola R.Proximity alarm system
US559847025 Apr 199428 Jan 1997International Business Machines CorporationMethod and apparatus for enabling trial period use of software products: Method and apparatus for utilizing a decryption block
US560660919 Sep 199425 Feb 1997Scientific-AtlantaElectronic document verification system and method
US56130047 Jun 199518 Mar 1997The Dice CompanySteganographic method and device
US56171197 Jun 19951 Apr 1997Systems Research & Applications CorporationProtection of an electronically stored image in a first color space by the alteration of a digital component in a second color space
US561750629 Jun 19941 Apr 1997The 3Do CompanyMethod for communicating a value over a transmission medium and for decoding same
US562569015 Nov 199329 Apr 1997Lucent Technologies Inc.Software pay per use system
US562998023 Nov 199413 May 1997Xerox CorporationSystem for controlling the distribution and use of digital works
US563393219 Dec 199527 May 1997Intel CorporationApparatus and method for preventing disclosure through user-authentication at a printing node
US563404018 Dec 199527 May 1997Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Data communication apparatus and method having concurrent image overlay function
US563627618 Apr 19953 Jun 1997Brugger; RolfDevice for the distribution of music information in digital form
US56362928 May 19953 Jun 1997Digimarc CorporationSteganography methods employing embedded calibration data
US564056928 Apr 199517 Jun 1997Sun Microsystems, Inc.Diverse goods arbitration system and method for allocating resources in a distributed computer system
US564699714 Dec 19948 Jul 1997Barton; James M.Method and apparatus for embedding authentication information within digital data
US56574614 Oct 199312 Aug 1997Xerox CorporationUser interface for defining and automatically transmitting data according to preferred communication channels
US565972623 Feb 199519 Aug 1997Sandford, Ii; Maxwell T.Data embedding
US566401812 Mar 19962 Sep 1997Leighton; Frank ThomsonWatermarking process resilient to collusion attacks
US567331629 Mar 199630 Sep 1997International Business Machines CorporationCreation and distribution of cryptographic envelope
US56756536 Nov 19957 Oct 1997Nelson, Jr.; Douglas ValmoreMethod and apparatus for digital encryption
US56779526 Dec 199414 Oct 1997International Business Machines CorporationMethod to protect information on a computer storage device
US56804627 Aug 199521 Oct 1997Sandia CorporationInformation encoder/decoder using chaotic systems
US568723631 Dec 199611 Nov 1997The Dice CompanySteganographic method and device
US56895879 Feb 199618 Nov 1997Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyMethod and apparatus for data hiding in images
US569682822 Sep 19959 Dec 1997United Technologies Automotive, Inc.Random number generating system and process based on chaos
US571993712 Sep 199617 Feb 1998Solana Technology Develpment CorporationMulti-media copy management system
US572178831 Jul 199224 Feb 1998Corbis CorporationMethod and system for digital image signatures
US573475224 Sep 199631 Mar 1998Xerox CorporationDigital watermarking using stochastic screen patterns
US57374162 Aug 19967 Apr 1998International Business Machines CorporationMethod and apparatus for enabling trial period use of software products: method and apparatus for utilizing a decryption stub
US573773326 Sep 19967 Apr 1998Microsoft CorporationMethod and system for searching compressed data
US57402447 May 199614 Apr 1998Washington UniversityMethod and apparatus for improved fingerprinting and authenticating various magnetic media
US574556917 Jan 199628 Apr 1998The Dice CompanyMethod for stega-cipher protection of computer code
US57487838 May 19955 May 1998Digimarc CorporationMethod and apparatus for robust information coding
US575181126 Nov 199612 May 1998Magnotti; Joseph C.32N +D bit key encryption-decryption system using chaos
US575469715 May 199519 May 1998Fu; Chi-YungSelective document image data compression technique
US575493831 Oct 199519 May 1998Herz; Frederick S. M.Pseudonymous server for system for customized electronic identification of desirable objects
US575792319 Apr 199626 May 1998Ut Automotive Dearborn, Inc.Method of generating secret identification numbers
US576515213 Oct 19959 Jun 1998Trustees Of Dartmouth CollegeSystem and method for managing copyrighted electronic media
US576839624 Jun 199616 Jun 1998Yamaha CorporationOnline karaoke system with flying start performance
US577445214 Mar 199530 Jun 1998Aris Technologies, Inc.Apparatus and method for encoding and decoding information in audio signals
US578118423 Sep 199414 Jul 1998Wasserman; Steve C.Real time decompression and post-decompress manipulation of compressed full motion video
US579067729 Jun 19954 Aug 1998Microsoft CorporationSystem and method for secure electronic commerce transactions
US579908326 Aug 199625 Aug 1998Brothers; Harlan JayEvent verification system
US580913913 Sep 199615 Sep 1998Vivo Software, Inc.Watermarking method and apparatus for compressed digital video
US580916012 Nov 199715 Sep 1998Digimarc CorporationMethod for encoding auxiliary data within a source signal
US58188188 Jul 19966 Oct 1998Fujitsu LimitedCommunication service quality control system
US582243217 Jan 199613 Oct 1998The Dice CompanyMethod for human-assisted random key generation and application for digital watermark system
US58283253 Apr 199627 Oct 1998Aris Technologies, Inc.Apparatus and method for encoding and decoding information in analog signals
US583211925 Sep 19953 Nov 1998Digimarc CorporationMethods for controlling systems using control signals embedded in empirical data
US583910022 Apr 199617 Nov 1998Wegener; Albert WilliamLossless and loss-limited compression of sampled data signals
US584221328 Jan 199724 Nov 1998Odom; Paul S.Method for modeling, storing, and transferring data in neutral form
US58481554 Sep 19968 Dec 1998Nec Research Institute, Inc.Spread spectrum watermark for embedded signalling
US58504818 May 199515 Dec 1998Digimarc CorporationSteganographic system
US585992030 Nov 199512 Jan 1999Eastman Kodak CompanyMethod for embedding digital information in an image
US586009912 May 199312 Jan 1999Usar Systems, Inc.Stored program system with protected memory and secure signature extraction
US586226016 May 199619 Jan 1999Digimarc CorporationMethods for surveying dissemination of proprietary empirical data
US587047429 Dec 19959 Feb 1999Scientific-Atlanta, Inc.Method and apparatus for providing conditional access in connection-oriented, interactive networks with a multiplicity of service providers
US588403315 May 199616 Mar 1999Spyglass, Inc.Internet filtering system for filtering data transferred over the internet utilizing immediate and deferred filtering actions
US58898682 Jul 199630 Mar 1999The Dice CompanyOptimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US589306731 May 19966 Apr 1999Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyMethod and apparatus for echo data hiding in audio signals
US589452115 Aug 199713 Apr 1999Direct Business Technologies, Inc.System and method for encrypting sensitive information
US590372113 Mar 199711 May 1999cha|Technologies Services, Inc.Method and system for secure online transaction processing
US590580025 Mar 199818 May 1999The Dice CompanyMethod and system for digital watermarking
US59059752 Jan 199718 May 1999Ausubel; Lawrence M.Computer implemented methods and apparatus for auctions
US591297226 Mar 199715 Jun 1999Sony CorporationMethod and apparatus for embedding authentication information within digital data
US59150275 Nov 199622 Jun 1999Nec Research InstituteDigital watermarking
US591791520 Jun 199529 Jun 1999Sony CorporationScramble/descramble method and apparatus for data broadcasting
US591822321 Jul 199729 Jun 1999Muscle FishMethod and article of manufacture for content-based analysis, storage, retrieval, and segmentation of audio information
US592090030 Dec 19966 Jul 1999Cabletron Systems, Inc.Hash-based translation method and apparatus with multiple level collision resolution
US592376321 Mar 199613 Jul 1999Walker Asset Management Limited PartnershipMethod and apparatus for secure document timestamping
US593036910 Sep 199727 Jul 1999Nec Research Institute, Inc.Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia data
US59303777 May 199827 Jul 1999Digimarc CorporationMethod for image encoding
US59401349 Dec 199617 Aug 1999U.S. Philips CorporationMarking a video and/or audio signal
US594342212 Aug 199624 Aug 1999Intertrust Technologies Corp.Steganographic techniques for securely delivering electronic digital rights management control information over insecure communication channels
US594905523 Oct 19977 Sep 1999Xerox CorporationAutomatic geometric image transformations using embedded signals
US596390925 Nov 19975 Oct 1999Solana Technology Development CorporationMulti-media copy management system
US597373130 May 199526 Oct 1999Schwab; Barry H.Secure identification system
US597414118 Oct 199626 Oct 1999Mitsubishi CorporationData management system
US599142618 Dec 199823 Nov 1999Signafy, Inc.Field-based watermark insertion and detection
US599921711 Mar 19977 Dec 1999Berners-Lee; Charles PeterApparatus and method for encoding data
US600917613 Feb 199728 Dec 1999International Business Machines CorporationHow to sign digital streams
US602912630 Jun 199822 Feb 2000Microsoft CorporationScalable audio coder and decoder
US604131625 Jul 199421 Mar 2000Lucent Technologies Inc.Method and system for ensuring royalty payments for data delivered over a network
US60444714 Jun 199828 Mar 2000Z4 Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for securing software to reduce unauthorized use
US60498381 Jul 199611 Apr 2000Sun Microsystems, Inc.Persistent distributed capabilities
US605102931 Oct 199718 Apr 2000Entelos, Inc.Method of generating a display for a dynamic simulation model utilizing node and link representations
US606179327 Aug 19979 May 2000Regents Of The University Of MinnesotaMethod and apparatus for embedding data, including watermarks, in human perceptible sounds
US60676222 Jan 199623 May 2000Moore; Steven JeromeSoftware security system using remove function to restrict unauthorized duplicating and installation of an application program
US606991419 Sep 199630 May 2000Nec Research Institute, Inc.Watermarking of image data using MPEG/JPEG coefficients
US607866420 Dec 199620 Jun 2000Moskowitz; Scott A.Z-transform implementation of digital watermarks
US60812519 May 199527 Jun 2000Sony CorporationApparatus and method for managing picture data
US60815876 Nov 199827 Jun 2000Zoom Telephonics, Inc.Modem with ring detection/modem processing capability
US608159719 Aug 199727 Jun 2000Ntru Cryptosystems, Inc.Public key cryptosystem method and apparatus
US60884557 Jan 199711 Jul 2000Logan; James D.Methods and apparatus for selectively reproducing segments of broadcast programming
US61311624 Jun 199810 Oct 2000Hitachi Ltd.Digital data authentication method
US614175310 Feb 199831 Oct 2000Fraunhofer GesellschaftSecure distribution of digital representations
US614175428 Nov 199731 Oct 2000International Business Machines CorporationIntegrated method and system for controlling information access and distribution
US614833313 May 199814 Nov 2000Mgi Software CorporationMethod and system for server access control and tracking
US615457117 Jul 199828 Nov 2000Nec Research Institute, Inc.Robust digital watermarking
US61733225 Jun 19979 Jan 2001Silicon Graphics, Inc.Network request distribution based on static rules and dynamic performance data
US617840518 Nov 199623 Jan 2001Innomedia Pte Ltd.Concatenation compression method
US61921387 May 199820 Feb 2001Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaApparatus and method for embedding/unembedding supplemental information
US619905817 May 19996 Mar 2001Oracle CorporationReport server caching
US62052492 Apr 199820 Mar 2001Scott A. MoskowitzMultiple transform utilization and applications for secure digital watermarking
US620874530 Dec 199727 Mar 2001Sarnoff CorporationMethod and apparatus for imbedding a watermark into a bitstream representation of a digital image sequence
US622661813 Aug 19981 May 2001International Business Machines CorporationElectronic content delivery system
US623026831 Jul 19988 May 2001International Business Machines CorporationData control system
US62333477 Dec 199815 May 2001Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologySystem method, and product for information embedding using an ensemble of non-intersecting embedding generators
US623368410 Oct 199715 May 2001Contenaguard Holdings, Inc.System for controlling the distribution and use of rendered digital works through watermaking
US62401219 Jul 199829 May 2001Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Apparatus and method for watermark data insertion and apparatus and method for watermark data detection
US626331330 Nov 199817 Jul 2001International Business Machines CorporationMethod and apparatus to create encoded digital content
US627263427 Aug 19977 Aug 2001Regents Of The University Of MinnesotaDigital watermarking to resolve multiple claims of ownership
US627598826 Jun 199614 Aug 2001Canon Kabushiki KaishaImage transmission apparatus, image transmission system, and communication apparatus
US627878029 Oct 199821 Aug 2001Nec CorporationMethod of and an apparatus for generating internal crypto-keys
US62787917 May 199821 Aug 2001Eastman Kodak CompanyLossless recovery of an original image containing embedded data
US628230021 Jan 200028 Aug 2001Signafy, Inc.Rotation, scale, and translation resilient public watermarking for images using a log-polar fourier transform
US628265025 Jan 199928 Aug 2001Intel CorporationSecure public digital watermark
US62857751 Oct 19984 Sep 2001The Trustees Of The University Of PrincetonWatermarking scheme for image authentication
US630166319 Nov 19989 Oct 2001Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaCopy protection apparatus and information recording medium used in this copy protection apparatus
US631096219 Aug 199830 Oct 2001Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.MPEG2 moving picture encoding/decoding system
US633033513 Jan 200011 Dec 2001Digimarc CorporationAudio steganography
US633067230 Jun 199811 Dec 2001At&T Corp.Method and apparatus for watermarking digital bitstreams
US634510014 Oct 19985 Feb 2002Liquid Audio, Inc.Robust watermark method and apparatus for digital signals
US63517659 Mar 199826 Feb 2002Media 100, Inc.Nonlinear video editing system
US63634833 Nov 199426 Mar 2002Lucent Technologies Inc.Methods and systems for performing article authentication
US637389213 Nov 199516 Apr 2002Sega Enterprises, Ltd.Method for compressing and decompressing moving picture information and video signal processing system
US63739606 Jan 199816 Apr 2002Pixel Tools CorporationEmbedding watermarks into compressed video data
US63740361 Oct 199816 Apr 2002Macrovsion CorporationMethod and apparatus for copy-once watermark for video recording
US63776256 Dec 199923 Apr 2002Soft4D Co., Ltd.Method and apparatus for generating steroscopic image using MPEG data
US638161817 Jun 199930 Apr 2002International Business Machines CorporationMethod and apparatus for autosynchronizing distributed versions of documents
US638174731 Mar 199730 Apr 2002Macrovision Corp.Method for controlling copy protection in digital video networks
US638532417 Mar 19987 May 2002Sorus Audio AgBroadband loudspeaker
US638532919 Jul 20007 May 2002Digimarc CorporationWavelet domain watermarks
US63855966 Feb 19987 May 2002Liquid Audio, Inc.Secure online music distribution system
US638953822 Oct 199814 May 2002International Business Machines CorporationSystem for tracking end-user electronic content usage
US63982451 Dec 19984 Jun 2002International Business Machines CorporationKey management system for digital content player
US640520321 Apr 199911 Jun 2002Research Investment Network, Inc.Method and program product for preventing unauthorized users from using the content of an electronic storage medium
US641504127 May 19992 Jul 2002Nec CorporationDigital watermark insertion system and digital watermark characteristic table creating device
US641842110 Dec 19989 Jul 2002International Business Machines CorporationMultimedia player for an electronic content delivery system
US642508114 Aug 199823 Jul 2002Canon Kabushiki KaishaElectronic watermark system electronic information distribution system and image filing apparatus
US643030130 Aug 20006 Aug 2002Verance CorporationFormation and analysis of signals with common and transaction watermarks
US643030210 Jan 20016 Aug 2002Digimarc CorporationSteganographically encoding a first image in accordance with a second image
US644228311 Jan 199927 Aug 2002Digimarc CorporationMultimedia data embedding
US644621110 Nov 20003 Sep 2002Z4 Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for monitoring software using encryption
US645325215 May 200017 Sep 2002Creative Technology Ltd.Process for identifying audio content
US645705812 Jul 200124 Sep 2002Cisco Technology, Inc.Network switch with hash table look up
US64634681 Jun 19998 Oct 2002Netzero, Inc.Targeted network video download interface
US648093725 Feb 199912 Nov 2002Pact Informationstechnologie GmbhMethod for hierarchical caching of configuration data having dataflow processors and modules having two-or multidimensional programmable cell structure (FPGAs, DPGAs, etc.)--
US648426418 May 200019 Nov 2002Z4 Technologies, Inc.Method for providing repeated contact with software end-user using authorized administrator
US649345716 Nov 199810 Dec 2002At&T Corp.Electronic watermarking in the compressed domain utilizing perceptual coding
US650219518 May 200031 Dec 2002Z4 Technologies, Inc.Computer readable storage medium for providing repeated contact with software end-user
US652276730 Mar 199918 Feb 2003Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US652276918 May 200018 Feb 2003Digimarc CorporationReconfiguring a watermark detector
US65231139 Nov 199818 Feb 2003Apple Computer, Inc.Method and apparatus for copy protection
US65300212 Jun 19994 Mar 2003Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Method and system for preventing unauthorized playback of broadcasted digital data streams
US653228427 Feb 200111 Mar 2003Morgan Guaranty Trust CompanyMethod and system for optimizing bandwidth cost via caching and other network transmission delaying techniques
US653947518 Dec 199825 Mar 2003Nec CorporationMethod and system for protecting digital data from unauthorized copying
US655710311 Feb 199929 Apr 2003The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmySpread spectrum image steganography
US658412522 Dec 199824 Jun 2003Nec CorporationCoding/decoding apparatus, coding/decoding system and multiplexed bit stream
US65878371 Dec 19981 Jul 2003International Business Machines CorporationMethod for delivering electronic content from an online store
US659099619 Apr 20008 Jul 2003Digimarc CorporationColor adaptive watermarking
US659816224 Mar 199822 Jul 2003Scott A. MoskowitzMethod for combining transfer functions with predetermined key creation
US66063932 Dec 199912 Aug 2003Verizon Laboratories Inc.Message authentication code using image histograms
US661159929 Sep 199726 Aug 2003Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.Watermarking of digital object
US664742419 May 199911 Nov 2003Nortel Networks LimitedMethod and apparatus for discarding data packets
US665801024 Jul 19972 Dec 2003Hybrid Networks, Inc.High-speed internet access system
US666548921 Apr 199916 Dec 2003Research Investment Network, Inc.System, method and article of manufacturing for authorizing the use of electronic content utilizing a laser-centric medium and a network server
US666824624 Mar 199923 Dec 2003Intel CorporationMultimedia data delivery and playback system with multi-level content and privacy protection
US66683259 Jun 199823 Dec 2003Intertrust TechnologiesObfuscation techniques for enhancing software security
US667485810 Dec 19986 Jan 2004Hitachi, Ltd.Receiving device, recording and reproducing device and receiving/recording-reproducing system for digital broadcast signal
US66876838 Oct 19993 Feb 2004Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Production protection system dealing with contents that are digital production
US67253722 Dec 199920 Apr 2004Verizon Laboratories Inc.Digital watermarking
US675482230 Apr 199822 Jun 2004Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Angewandten Forshung E.V.Active watermarks and watermark agents
US677577212 Oct 199910 Aug 2004International Business Machines CorporationPiggy-backed key exchange protocol for providing secure low-overhead browser connections from a client to a server using a trusted third party
US678435413 Mar 200331 Aug 2004Microsoft CorporationGenerating a music snippet
US67858157 Jun 200031 Aug 2004Intertrust Technologies Corp.Methods and systems for encoding and protecting data using digital signature and watermarking techniques
US678582531 May 200231 Aug 2004Z4 Technologies, Inc.Method for securing software to decrease software piracy
US67925485 Nov 200114 Sep 2004Z4 Technologies, Inc.Method for providing repeated contact with software end-user using authorized administrator
US67925495 Nov 200114 Sep 2004Z4 Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for repeated contact of software end-user
US67959255 Nov 200121 Sep 2004Z4 Technologies, Inc.Computer readable storage medium for providing repeated contact with software end-user
US679927727 Mar 200128 Sep 2004Z4 Technologies, Inc.System and method for monitoring software
US680445315 May 200012 Oct 2004Hitachi, Ltd.Digital signal recording/reproducing apparatus
US681371713 May 20022 Nov 2004Z4 Technologies, Inc.Method for securing software to reduce unauthorized use
US681371826 Jun 20022 Nov 2004Z4 Technologies, Inc.Computer readable storage medium for securing software to reduce unauthorized use
US68234558 Apr 199923 Nov 2004Intel CorporationMethod for robust watermarking of content
US683430817 Feb 200021 Dec 2004Audible Magic CorporationMethod and apparatus for identifying media content presented on a media playing device
US684286210 Jan 200311 Jan 2005Cloakware CorporationTamper resistant software encoding
US68537268 Dec 19998 Feb 2005Wistaria Trading, Inc.Z-transform implementation of digital watermarks
US685707830 May 200215 Feb 2005Z4 Technologies, Inc.Method for securing software to increase license compliance
US686574731 Mar 20008 Mar 2005Digital Video Express, L.P.High definition media storage structure and playback mechanism
US693153419 Nov 199916 Aug 2005Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Erricsson (Publ)Method and a device for encryption of images
US695094130 Apr 199927 Sep 2005Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Copy protection system for portable storage media
US69573301 Mar 199918 Oct 2005Storage Technology CorporationMethod and system for secure information handling
US69660029 Jun 199915 Nov 2005Trymedia Systems, Inc.Methods and apparatus for secure distribution of software
US69683379 Jul 200222 Nov 2005Audible Magic CorporationMethod and apparatus for identifying an unknown work
US697789419 May 199920 Dec 2005Nortel Networks LimitedMethod and apparatus for discarding data packets through the use of descriptors
US697837023 Mar 199920 Dec 2005Cryptography Research, Inc.Method and system for copy-prevention of digital copyright works
US69830588 Sep 19993 Jan 2006Kowa Co., Ltd.Method of embedding digital watermark, storage medium in which the method is stored, method of identifying embedded digital watermark, and apparatus for embedding digital watermark
US69860634 Feb 200310 Jan 2006Z4 Technologies, Inc.Method for monitoring software using encryption including digital signatures/certificates
US699045320 Apr 200124 Jan 2006Landmark Digital Services LlcSystem and methods for recognizing sound and music signals in high noise and distortion
US70071667 Apr 200028 Feb 2006Wistaria Trading, Inc.Method and system for digital watermarking
US702028512 Jul 200028 Mar 2006Microsoft CorporationStealthy audio watermarking
US703504912 Aug 200425 Apr 2006Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Japan, Ltd.Glass substrate for a magnetic disk, a magnetic disk which can be formed with a stable texture and a magnetic disk device
US703540923 Aug 200025 Apr 2006Moskowitz Scott AMultiple transform utilization and applications for secure digital watermarking
US70430502 May 20019 May 2006Microsoft CorporationSoftware anti-piracy systems and methods utilizing certificates with digital content
US704680824 Mar 200016 May 2006Verance CorporationMethod and apparatus for detecting processing stages applied to a signal
US705039630 Nov 200023 May 2006Cisco Technology, Inc.Method and apparatus for automatically establishing bi-directional differentiated services treatment of flows in a network
US705120821 Oct 200423 May 2006Microsoft CorporationTechnique for producing through watermarking highly tamper-resistant executable code and resulting “watermarked” code so formed
US705857010 Feb 20006 Jun 2006Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Computer-implemented method and apparatus for audio data hiding
US709329515 Oct 199915 Aug 2006Makoto SaitoMethod and device for protecting digital data by double re-encryption
US70957152 Jul 200122 Aug 20063Com CorporationSystem and method for processing network packet flows
US709587418 Feb 200322 Aug 2006Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US71031849 May 20025 Sep 2006Intel CorporationSystem and method for sign mask encryption and decryption
US710745122 Feb 200112 Sep 2006Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US712371816 Jun 200017 Oct 2006Blue Spike, Inc.Utilizing data reduction in stegnographic and cryptographic systems
US712761520 Sep 200124 Oct 2006Blue Spike, Inc.Security based on subliminal and supraliminal channels for data objects
US715000325 Nov 200212 Dec 2006Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Class coalescence for obfuscation of object-oriented software
US715216230 Dec 200419 Dec 2006Wistaria Trading, Inc.Z-transform implementation of digital watermarks
US71591167 Dec 20002 Jan 2007Blue Spike, Inc.Systems, methods and devices for trusted transactions
US716264215 Jun 20019 Jan 2007Digital Video Express, L.P.Digital content distribution system and method
US71774297 Dec 200013 Feb 2007Blue Spike, Inc.System and methods for permitting open access to data objects and for securing data within the data objects
US717743031 Oct 200113 Feb 2007Portalplayer, Inc.Digital entroping for digital audio reproductions
US720664921 Oct 200417 Apr 2007Microsoft CorporationAudio watermarking with dual watermarks
US723152416 Feb 200612 Jun 2007Microsoft CorporationMethod for watermarking computer programs
US723366913 Dec 200219 Jun 2007Sony CorporationSelective encryption to enable multiple decryption keys
US72402104 Nov 20043 Jul 2007Microsoft CorporationHash value computer of content of digital signals
US72666973 May 20044 Sep 2007Microsoft CorporationStealthy audio watermarking
US728645123 Jun 200323 Oct 2007Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Copy control using digital speed bumps
US728727517 Apr 200323 Oct 2007Moskowitz Scott AMethods, systems and devices for packet watermarking and efficient provisioning of bandwidth
US728964319 Dec 200130 Oct 2007Digimarc CorporationMethod, apparatus and programs for generating and utilizing content signatures
US73434925 Oct 200511 Mar 2008Wistaria Trading, Inc.Method and system for digital watermarking
US73464727 Sep 200018 Mar 2008Blue Spike, Inc.Method and device for monitoring and analyzing signals
US73627752 Jul 199622 Apr 2008Wistaria Trading, Inc.Exchange mechanisms for digital information packages with bandwidth securitization, multichannel digital watermarks, and key management
US73632783 Apr 200222 Apr 2008Audible Magic CorporationCopyright detection and protection system and method
US74090737 Jul 20065 Aug 2008Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US74579622 Aug 200625 Nov 2008Wistaria Trading, IncOptimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US746099420 Jun 20022 Dec 2008M2Any GmbhMethod and apparatus for producing a fingerprint, and method and apparatus for identifying an audio signal
US74752464 Aug 20006 Jan 2009Blue Spike, Inc.Secure personal content server
US753010210 Sep 20075 May 2009Moskowitz Scott AMethods, systems and devices for packet watermarking and efficient provisioning of bandwidth
US753272529 Dec 200612 May 2009Blue Spike, Inc.Systems and methods for permitting open access to data objects and for securing data within the data objects
US756810023 Jul 199728 Jul 2009Wistaria Trading, Inc.Steganographic method and device
US764750215 Nov 200612 Jan 2010Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US76475037 Sep 200712 Jan 2010Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, projection, and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US766426325 Jun 200316 Feb 2010Moskowitz Scott AMethod for combining transfer functions with predetermined key creation
US774300121 Jun 200522 Jun 2010Amazon Technologies, Inc.Method and system for dynamic pricing of web services utilization
US77617127 Feb 200520 Jul 2010Wistaria Trading, Inc.Steganographic method and device
US77792613 Jan 200717 Aug 2010Wistaria Trading, Inc.Method and system for digital watermarking
US2001001007824 Jan 200126 Jul 2001Moskowitz Scott A.Multiple transform utilization and applications for secure digital watermarking
US2001002958022 Feb 200111 Oct 2001Moskowitz Scott A.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US2001004359422 May 199722 Nov 2001Hiroaki OgawaInformation processing apparatus, information processing method and identification code
US2002000920817 Apr 200124 Jan 2002Adnan AlattarAuthentication of physical and electronic media objects using digital watermarks
US200200106847 Dec 200024 Jan 2002Moskowitz Scott A.Systems, methods and devices for trusted transactions
US200200263439 Aug 200128 Feb 2002Dennis DuenkeMaterial and labor cost estimatting method and system
US2002005604120 Sep 20019 May 2002Moskowitz Scott A.Security based on subliminal and supraliminal channels for data objects
US200200576516 Dec 200116 May 2002Roberts Lawrence G.Micro-flow management
US200200715567 Dec 200013 Jun 2002Moskowitz Scott A.System and methods for permitting open access to data objects and for securing data within the data objects
US200200730436 Dec 200113 Jun 2002Gary HermanSmart electronic receipt system
US2002009787329 Jun 199825 Jul 2002Rade PetrovicApparatus and method for embedding and extracting information in analog signals using replica modulation
US2002010388319 Jun 19981 Aug 2002Paul HaverstockWeb server with unique identification of linked objects
US2002015217925 Oct 200117 Oct 2002Achiezer RacovRemote payment method and system
US200201617411 Mar 200231 Oct 2002Shazam Entertainment Ltd.Method and apparatus for automatically creating database for use in automated media recognition system
US2003000286229 Jun 20012 Jan 2003Rodriguez Arturo A.Bandwidth allocation and pricing system for downloadable media content
US200300057805 Jul 20019 Jan 2003Birger PahlTorque measuring apparatus and method employing a crystal oscillator
US2003002754930 Jul 20016 Feb 2003Msafe Inc.Prepaid communication system and method
US2003012644520 Dec 20023 Jul 2003Apple Computer, Inc.Method and apparatus for copy protection
US2003013370221 Apr 199917 Jul 2003Todd R. CollartSystem, method and article of manufacturing for authorizing the use of electronic content utilizing a laser-centric medium and a network server
US2003020043917 Apr 200323 Oct 2003Moskowitz Scott A.Methods, systems and devices for packet watermarking and efficient provisioning of bandwidth
US2003021914318 Feb 200327 Nov 2003Moskowitz Scott A.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US2004002822227 Jul 200112 Feb 2004Sewell Roger FaneStegotext encoder and decoder
US2004003744925 Aug 200326 Feb 2004Davis Bruce L.Integrating digital watermarks in multimedia content
US2004004969524 Dec 200211 Mar 2004Choi Yang SeoSystem for providing a real-time attacking connection traceback using a packet watermark insertion technique and method therefor
US2004005991815 Dec 200025 Mar 2004Changsheng XuMethod and system of digital watermarking for compressed audio
US2004008336925 Jul 200329 Apr 2004Ulfar ErlingssonSystems and methods for transparent configuration authentication of networked devices
US2004008611925 Jun 20036 May 2004Moskowitz Scott A.Method for combining transfer functions with predetermined key creation
US2004009352111 Jul 200313 May 2004Ihab HamadehReal-time packet traceback and associated packet marking strategies
US200401176285 Sep 200317 Jun 2004Z4 Technologies, Inc.Computer readable storage medium for enhancing license compliance of software/digital content including self-activating/self-authenticating software/digital content
US200401176645 Sep 200317 Jun 2004Z4 Technologies, Inc.Apparatus for establishing a connectivity platform for digital rights management
US200401259833 Jul 20031 Jul 2004Reed Alastair M.Color adaptive watermarking
US200401285148 Sep 20031 Jul 2004Rhoads Geoffrey B.Method for increasing the functionality of a media player/recorder device or an application program
US200402258945 Sep 200311 Nov 2004Z4 Technologies, Inc.Hardware based method for digital rights management including self activating/self authentication software
US2004024354022 Mar 20042 Dec 2004Moskowitz Scott A.Method and device for monitoring and analyzing signals
US2005013561530 Dec 200423 Jun 2005Moskowitz Scott A.Z-transform implementation of digital watermarks
US2005016027114 Oct 200321 Jul 2005Brundage Trent J.Identification document and related methods
US200501777277 Feb 200511 Aug 2005Moskowitz Scott A.Steganographic method and device
US2005024655430 Apr 20043 Nov 2005Apple Computer, Inc.System and method for creating tamper-resistant code
US200600050291 Jul 20055 Jan 2006Verance CorporationPre-processed information embedding system
US2006001339526 May 200519 Jan 2006Brundage Trent JDigital watermark key generation
US200600134517 Oct 200319 Jan 2006Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V.Audio data fingerprint searching
US2006004175311 Aug 200323 Feb 2006Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Fingerprint extraction
US200601012695 Oct 200511 May 2006Wistaria Trading, Inc.Method and system for digital watermarking
US2006014040321 Feb 200629 Jun 2006Moskowitz Scott AMultiple transform utilization and application for secure digital watermarking
US2006025129119 Jul 20069 Nov 2006Rhoads Geoffrey BMethods for inserting and detecting watermarks in digital data
US200602857227 Jul 200621 Dec 2006Moskowitz Scott AOptimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US200700114582 Aug 200611 Jan 2007Scott A. MoskowitzOptimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US2007002811329 Aug 20061 Feb 2007Moskowitz Scott ASystems, methods and devices for trusted transactions
US2007006494012 Sep 200622 Mar 2007Blue Spike, Inc.Utilizing data reduction in steganographic and cryptographic systems
US200700791312 Nov 20065 Apr 2007Wistaria Trading, Inc.Linear predictive coding implementation of digital watermarks
US2007008346710 Oct 200512 Apr 2007Apple Computer, Inc.Partial encryption techniques for media data
US2007011024029 Dec 200617 May 2007Blue Spike, Inc.System and methods for permitting open access to data objects and for securing data within the data objects
US200701130943 Jan 200717 May 2007Wistaria Trading, Inc.Method and system for digital watermarking
US200701277176 Nov 20067 Jun 2007Juergen HerreDevice and Method for Analyzing an Information Signal
US2007022650615 Nov 200627 Sep 2007Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US200702535942 Mar 20071 Nov 2007Vobile, Inc.Method and system for fingerprinting digital video object based on multiresolution, multirate spatial and temporal signatures
US2007029453621 Aug 200720 Dec 2007Wistaria Trading, Inc.Steganographic method and device
US2007030007231 Aug 200727 Dec 2007Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US200703000737 Sep 200727 Dec 2007Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US2008000557110 Sep 20073 Jan 2008Moskowitz Scott AMethods, systems and devices for packet watermarking and efficient provisioning of bandwidth
US2008000557210 Sep 20073 Jan 2008Moskowitz Scott AMethods, systems and devices for packet watermarking and efficient provisioning of bandwidth
US2008001636524 Aug 200717 Jan 2008Moskowitz Scott AData protection method and device
US2008002211331 Aug 200724 Jan 2008Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection and detection of digital of digital watermarks in digital data
US200800221147 Sep 200724 Jan 2008Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US2008002822211 Sep 200631 Jan 2008Blue Spike, Inc.Security based on subliminal and supraliminal channels for data objects
US2008004674215 Nov 200621 Feb 2008Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US2008007527721 Aug 200727 Mar 2008Wistaria Trading, Inc.Steganographic method and device
US2008010941726 Dec 20078 May 2008Blue Spike, Inc.Method and device for monitoring and analyzing signals
US2008013392726 Dec 20075 Jun 2008Wistaria Trading Inc.Method and system for digital watermarking
US2008015193423 Jan 200826 Jun 2008Wistaria Trading, Inc.Exchange mechanisms for digital information packages with bandwidth securitization, multichannel digital watermarks, and key management
US200900377409 Jul 20085 Feb 2009Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US200900894279 Oct 20082 Apr 2009Blue Spike, Inc.Secure personal content server
US2009019075430 Mar 200930 Jul 2009Blue Spike, Inc.System and methods for permitting open access to data objects and for securing data within the data objects
US2009021071123 Mar 200920 Aug 2009Moskowitz Scott AMethods, systems and devices for packet watermarking and efficient provisioning of bandwidth
US2009022007430 Mar 20093 Sep 2009Wistaria Trading Inc.Steganographic method and device
US2010000290430 Jun 20087 Jan 2010Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digitized data
US2010000530810 Aug 20097 Jan 2010Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US2010006414012 Nov 200911 Mar 2010Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US2010007721910 Nov 200925 Mar 2010Wistaria Trading, Inc.Optimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US2010007722023 Nov 200925 Mar 2010Moskowitz Scott AOptimization methods for the insertion, protection, and detection of digital watermarks in digital data
US2010009825122 Dec 200922 Apr 2010Moskowitz Scott AMethod for combining transfer functions and predetermined key creation
US2010010673622 Dec 200929 Apr 2010Blue Spike, Inc.Method and device for monitoring and analyzing signals
US2010015373422 Dec 200917 Jun 2010Blue Spike, Inc.Utilizing data reduction in steganographic and cryptographic system
US2010018257028 Jun 200722 Jul 2010Chota MatsumotoOphthalmic examination system
US2010020260714 Apr 201012 Aug 2010Wistaria Trading, Inc.Linear predictive coding implementation of digital watermarks
US201002208614 May 20102 Sep 2010Moskowitz Scott AMultiple transform utilization and application for secure digital watermarking
EP0372601A18 Nov 198913 Jun 1990Philips Electronics N.V.Coder for incorporating extra information in a digital audio signal having a predetermined format, decoder for extracting such extra information from a digital signal, device for recording a digital signal on a record carrier, comprising such a coder, and record carrier obtained by means of such a device
EP0372601B18 Nov 198922 Feb 1995Philips Electronics N.V.Coder for incorporating extra information in a digital audio signal having a predetermined format, decoder for extracting such extra information from a digital signal, device for recording a digital signal on a record carrier, comprising such a coder, and record carrier obtained by means of such a device
EP0565947A131 Mar 199320 Oct 1993NOKIA TECHNOLOGY GmbHProcedure for including digital information in an audio signal prior to channel coding
EP0565947B131 Mar 199328 May 1997NOKIA TECHNOLOGY GmbHProcedure for including digital information in an audio signal prior to channel coding
EP0581317A230 Jul 19932 Feb 1994Corbis CorporationMethod and system for digital image signatures
EP0649261B117 Oct 199423 Jan 2002Canon Kabushiki KaishaImage data processing and encrypting apparatus
EP0651554A125 Oct 19943 May 1995Eastman Kodak CompanyMethod and apparatus for the addition and removal of digital watermarks in a hierarchical image storage and retrieval system
EP0872073B17 Jun 199628 Nov 2007Wistaria Trading, Inc.Steganographic method and device
EP1354276B126 Oct 200112 Dec 2007Audible Magic CorporationMethod and apparatus for creating a unique audio signature
EP1547337B125 Jul 200322 Mar 2006Green Border TechnologiesWatermarking at the packet level
NL1005523C2 Title not available
WO2002003385A15 Jul 200010 Jan 2002Moskowitz Scott ACopy protection of digital data combining steganographic and cryptographic techniques
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1"Techniques for Data Hiding in Audio Files," by Morimoto, 1995.
2"YouTube Copyright Policy: Video Identification tool—YouTube Help", accessed Jun. 4, 2009, http://www.google.com/support/youtube/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=83766, 3 pp.
31997, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th Ed., Merriam Webster, Inc., p. 207.
4Aerosmith ("Just Push Play"), Pre-Release CD image, 2001, 1 page.
5Arctic Monkeys (Whatever People Say I Am, That's What I'm Not), Domino Recording Co. Ltd., Pre-Release CD image, 2005, 1 page.
6Bander, Walter R. et al., Techniques for Data Hiding, SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., vol. 2420, pp. 164-173, 1995.
7Bender, et al., "Techniques for Data Hiding", IBM Systems Journal, (1996) vol. 35, Nos. 3 & 4,1996, pp. 313-336.
8Bender, et al., Techniques for Data Hiding, IBM Systems Journal, vol. 35, Nos. 3 & 4, 1996,pp. 313-336.
9Bender, Walter R. et al., Techniques for Data Hiding, SPIE Int Soc. Opt. Eng., vol. 2420, pp. 164-173, 1995.
10Boney, et al., Digital Watermarks for Audio Signals, EVSIPCO, 96, pp. 473-480 (Mar. 14, 1997).
11Boney, et al., Digital Watermarks for Audio Signals, EVSIPCO, 96, pp. 473-480.
12Boney, et al., Digital Watermarks for Audio Signals, Proceedings of the International Conf. on Multimedia Computing and Systems, Jun. 17-23, 1996 Hiroshima, Japan, 0-8186-7436-9196, pp. 473-480.
13Boney, et al., Digital Watermarks for Audio Signals, Proceedings of the International Conf. on Multimedia Computing and Systems, Jun. 17-23, 1996, Hiroshima, Japan, 0-8186-7436-9196, pp. 473-480.
14Brealy, et al., Principles of Corporate Finance, "Appendix A-Using Option Valuation Models", 1984, pp. 448-449.
15Brealy, et al., Principles of Corporate Finance, "Appendix A—Using Option Valuation Models", 1984, pp. 448-449.
16Caronni, Germano, "Assuring Ownership Rights for Digital Images", published proceeds of reliable IT systems, v15 '95, H.H. Bruggemann and W Gerhardt—Hackel (Ed) Viewing Publishing Company Germany 1995.
17Caronni, Germano, "Assuring Ownership Rights for Digital Images", published proceeds of reliable IT systems, v15 '95, H.H. Bruggemann and W. Gerhardt-Hackel (Ed) Viewing Publishing Company Germany 1995.
18Cayre, et al., "Kerckhoffs-Based Embedding Security Classes for WOA Data Hiding", IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 3 No. 1, Mar. 2008, 15 pages.
19Cayre, et al., "Kerckhoffs-Based Embedding Security Classes for WOA Data Hiding", IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 3 No. 1, Mar. 2008, 15 pp.
20Copeland, et al., Real Options: A Practitioner's Guide, 2001 pp. 106-107, 201-202, 204-208.
21Copeland, et al., Real Options:A Practitioner's Guide, 2001 pp. 106-107, 201-202, 204-208.
22Cox, et al., Secure Spead Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia, NEC Research Institute, Techinal Report, 95-10, p. 33.
23Cox, et al., Secure Spread Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia, NEC Research Institude, Techinal Report 95-10, pp. 33.
24Cox, I. J., et al. "Secure Spread Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 6 No. 12, Dec. 1, 1997, pp. 1673-1686.
25Cox, I.J., et al. "Secure Spread Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 6 No. 12, Dec. 1, 1997, pp. 1673-1686.
26Craver, et al., "Can Invisible Watermarks Resolve Rightful Ownerships?", IBM Research Report, RC 20509 (Jul. 25, 1996) 21 pp.
27Craver, et al., Can Invisible Watermarks Resolve Rightful Ownerships? IBM Research Report, RC 20509 (Jul. 25, 1996) 21 pp.
28Crawford, D.W. "Pricing Network Usage: A Market for Bandwidth of Market Communication?" presented MIT Workshop on Internet Economics, Mar. 1995 http://www press vmich edu/iep/works/CrawMarket html on March.
29Crawford, D.W. "Pricing Network Usage: A Market for Bandwidth of Market Communication?" presented MIT Workshop on Internet Economics, Mar. 1995 http://www.press.vmich.edu/iep/works/CrawMarket.html on March.
30CSG, Computer Support Group and CSGNetwork.com 1973 http://www.csgnetwork.com/glossarys.html.
31Delaigle, J.-F., et al. "Digital Watermarking," Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 2659, Feb 1, 1996, pp. 99-110.
32Delaigle, J.-F., et al. "Digital Watermarking," Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 2659, Feb. 1, 1996, pp. 99-110 (Abstract).
33Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Del Ft University of Technology, Del Ft The Netherlands, Cr.C. Langelaar et al.,"Copy Protection for Multimedia Data based on Labeling Techniques", Jul. 1996 9 pp.
34Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Del Ft University of Technology, Del ft The Netherlands,Cr.C. Langelaar et al.,Copy Protection for Multimedia Data based on Labeling Techniques Jul. 1996 9 pp.
35EP0581317A2, Moved to Foreign Patent Pubs as F-028.
36EPO Application No. 96919405.9, entitled "Steganographic Method and Device"; published as EP0872073 (A2), Oct. 21, 1998.
37EPO Divisional Patent Application No. 07112420.0, entitled "Steganographic Method and Device" corresponding to PCT Application No. PCT/US96/10257, published as WO/1996/042151, Dec. 27, 1996.
38European Search Report & European Search Opinion in EP07112420.
39European Search Report & European Search Opinion, completed Oct. 15, 2007; authorized officer James Hazel (EP 07 11 2420) (9 pages).
40F. Hartung, et al., "Digital Watermarking of Raw and Compressed Video", SPIE vol. 2952, pp. 205-213.
41F. Hartung, et al., Digital Watermarking of Raw and Compressed Video, SPIE, vol. 2952, pp. 205-213.
42Fabien A.P. Petitcolas, Ross J. Anderson and Markkus G. Kuhn, "Attacks on Copyright Marking Systems," LNCS, vol. 1525, Apr. 14-17, 1998, pp. 218-238 ISBN 3-540-65386-4.
43Fabien A.P. Petitcolas, Ross J. Anderson and Markkus G. Kuhn, "Attacks on Copyright Marking Systems," LNCS, vol. 1525, Apr. 14-17, 1998, pp. 218-238 ISBN: 3-540-65386-4.
44Farkex, Inc 2010 "Steganography definition of steganography in the Free Online Encyclopedia" http://encyclopedia2.Thefreedictionary.com/steganography.
45Gerzon, Michael et al., A High Rate Buried Data Channel for Audio CD, presentation notes, Audio Engineering Soc. 94th Convention (1993).
46Graham, Robert Aug. 21, 2000 "Hacking Lexicon" http://robertgraham.com/pubs/hacking-dict.html.
47Gruhl, Daniel et al., Echo Hiding. In Proceeding of the Workshop on Information Hiding. No. 1174 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Cambridge, England (May/Jun. 1996).
48Gruhl, Daniel et al., Echol Hiding. In Proceeding of the Workshop on Information Hiding. No. 1174 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cambridge, England (May/Jun. 1996).
49Hartung, et al. "Multimedia Watermarking Techniques", Proceedings of the IEEE, Special Issue, Identification & Protection of Multimedia Information, pp. 1079-1107 Jul. 1999 vol. 87 No. 7 IEEE.
50Hartung, et al., "Multimedia Watermarking Techniques", Proceedings of the IEEE, Special Issue, Identification & Protection of Multimedia Information, pp. 1079-1107, Jul. 1999, vol. 87, No. 7 IEEE.
51Horowitz, et al., The Art of Electronics, 2nd Ed., 1989, pp. 7.
52Horowitz, et al., The Art of Eletronics. 2nd Ed., 1989, pp. 7.
53Howe, Dennis Jul. 13, 1998 http://foldoc..org//steganography.
54International Search Report in PCT/US99/07262.
55Jap. App. No. 2000-542907, entitled "Multiple Transform Utilization and Application for Secure Digital Watermarking"; which is a JP national stage of PCT/US1999/007262, published as WO/1999/052271, Oct. 14, 1999.
56Jayant, N.S. et al., Digital Coding of Waveforms, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 486-509 (1984).
57Jayant, N.S. et al., Digital Coding of Waveforms, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs,NJ, pp. 486-509 (1984).
58Jimmy eat world ("futures"), Interscope Records, Pre-Release CD image, 2004, 1 page.
59Johnson, et al., "Transform Permuted Watermarking for Copyright Protection of Digital Video", IEEE Globecom 1998, Nov. 8-12, 1998, New York New York vol. 2 1998 pp. 684-689 (ISBN 0-7803-4985-7).
60Johnson, et al., Transform Permuted Watermarking for Copyright Protection of Digital Video, IEEE Globecom 1998, Nov. 8-12, 1998, New York, vol. 2, 1998, pp. 684-689, (ISBN 0-7803-4985-7).
61Joseph J.K. O'Ruanaidh and Thierry Pun, "Rotation, Scale and Translation Invariant Digital Image Watermarking", pre-publication, Summer 1997 4 pages.
62Joseph J.K. O'Ruanaidh and Thierry Pun, "Rotation, Scale and Translation Invariant Digital Image Watermarking", Submitted to Signal Processing Aug. 21, 1997, 19 pages.
63Joseph J.K. O'Ruanniadh and Thierry Pun, "Rotation, Scale and Translation Invariant Digital Image Watermarking", pre-publication, Summer 1997, 4 pages.
64Kahn, D., "The Code Breakers", The MacMillan Company, 1969, pp. xIII, 81-83, 513, 515, 522-526, 863.
65Kahn, D., The Code Breakers, The MacMillan Company, 1969, pp. xIII, 81-83,513,515,522-526,863.
66Kini, a. et al., "Trust in Electronic Commerce: Definition and Theoretical Considerations", Proceedings of the 31st Hawaii Int'l Conf on System Sciences (Cat. No. 98TB100216), Jan. 6-9, 1998, pp. 51-61, Los.
67Kini, et al., "Trust in Electronic Commerce: Definition and Theoretical Considerations", Proceedings of the 31st Hawaii Int'l Conf on System Sciences (Cat. No. 98TB100216). Jan. 6-9, 1998. pp. 51-61. Los.
68Koch, E., et al., "Towards Robust and Hidden Image Copyright Labeling", 1995 IEEE Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing, Jun. 1995 Neos Marmaras pp. 4.
69Koch, E., et al., Towards Robust and Hidden Image Copyright Labeling, 1995 IEEE Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing, Jun. 1995, Neos Marmaras pp. 4.
70Kocher, et al., "Self Protecting Digital Content", Technical Report from the CRI Content Security Research Initiative, Cryptography Research, Inc. 2002-2003 14 pages.
71Kocher, et al., "Self Protecting Digital Content", Technical Report from the CRI Content Security Research Initiative, Crytography Research, Inc. 2002-2003. 14 pages.
72Konrad, K. et al., "Trust and Electronic Commerce-more than a technical problem," Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems Oct. 19-22, 1999, pp. 360-365 Lausanne.
73Konrad, K. et al., "Trust and Electronic Commerce—more than a technical problem," Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems Oct. 19-22, 1999, pp. 360-365 Lausanne.
74Konrad, K. et al., "Trust and Electronic Commerce—more than a Technical problem," Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems Oct. 19-22, 1999, pp. 360-365, Lausanne.
75Kutter, Martin et al., "Digital Signature of Color Images Using Amplitude Modulation", SPIE-E197, vol. 3022, pp. 518-527.
76Kutter, Martin et al., Digital Signature of Color Images Using Amplitude Modulation, SPIE-E197, vol. 3022, pp. 518-527.
77Lemma, et al. "Secure Watermark Embedding through Partial Encryption", International Workshop on Digital Watermarking ("IWDW" 2006). Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2006 (to appear) 13.
78Lemma, et al., "Secure Watermark Embedding through Partial Encryption", International Workshop on Digital Watermarking ("IWDW" 2006), Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2006,(to appear) 13.
79Low, S.H., "Equilibrium Allocation and Pricing of Variable Resources Among User-Suppliers", 1988. http://www.citesear.nj.nec.com/366503.html.
80Menezes, Alfred J., Handbook of Applied Cryptography, CRC Press, p. 175, 1997.
81Menezes, Alfred J., Handbook of Applied Cryptography, CRC Press, p. 46, 1997.
82Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th Ed., Merriam Webster, Inc., p. 207.
83Moskowitz, "Bandwith as Currency", IEEE Multimedia, Jan.-Mar. 2003, pp. 14-21.
84Moskowitz, "What is Acceptable Quality in the Application of Digital Watermarking: Trade-offs of Security, Robustness and Quality", IEEE Computer Society Proceedings of ITCC 2002 Apr. 10, 2002, pp. 80-84.
85Moskowitz, "What is Acceptable Quality in the Application of Digital Watermarking: Trade-offs of Security; Robustness and Quality", IEEE Computer Society Proceedings of ITCC 2002 Apr. 10, 2002 pp. 80-84.
86Moskowitz, Bandwith as Currency, IEEE Multimedia, Jan.-Mar. 2003, pp. 14-21.
87Moskowitz, Multimedia Security Technologies for Digital Rights Management, 2006, Academic Press, "Introduction-Digital Rights Management" pp. 3-22.
88Moskowitz, Multimedia Security Technologies for Digital Rights Management, 2006, Academic Press, "Introduction—Digital Rights Management" pp. 3-22.
89Moskowtiz, Multimedia Security Technologies for Digital Rights Management, 2006, Academic Press, "Introduction-Digital Rights Management" pp. 3-22.
90Namboong, H. "An Integrated Approach to Legacy Data for Mustmedia Applications", Proceedings of the 23rd Euromicro Conference, vol.-Iss 1-4 Sep. 1997. 387-391. (1089-6503/97 IEEE).
91Namgoong, H., "An Integrated Approach to Legacy Data for Multimedia Applications", Proceedings of the 23rd Euromicro Conference, vol., Issue 1-4, Sep. 1997, pp. 387-391.
92Oasis (Dig Out Your Soul), Big Brother Recordings Ltd, Promotional CD image, 2008, 1 page.
93Oomen, A.W.J. et al., A Variable Bit Rate Buried Data Channel for Compact Disc, J.Audio Eng.Sc., vol. 43,No. 1/2,pp. 23-28 (1995).
94Oomen, A.W.J. et al., A Variable Bit Rate Buried Data Channel for Compact Disc, J.AudioEng. Sc., vol. 43, No. 1/2, pp. 23-28 (1995).
95O'Rauanaidh, et al. Watermarking Digital Images for Copyright Protection, IEEE Proceedings, vol. 143, No. 4, Aug. 1996, pp. 250-256.
96O'Ruanaidh, et al. "Watermarking Digital Images for Copyright Protection", IEEE Proceedings, vol. 143, No. 4, Aug. 1996, pp. 250-256.
97PCT Application No. PCT/US00/06522, filed Mar. 14, 2000, entitled, "Utilizing Data Reduction in Steganographic and Cryptographic Systems", published as WO/2000/057643; Publication Date: Sep. 28, 2000.
98PCT Application No. PCT/US00/18411, filed Jul. 5, 2000, entitled, "Copy Protection of Digital Data Combining Steganographic and Cryptographic Techniques".
99PCT Application No. PCT/US00/21189, filed Aug. 4, 2000, entitled, "A Secure Personal Content Server", Pub. No. WO/2001/018628 ; Publication Date: Mar. 15, 2001.
100PCT Application No. PCT/US00/33126, filed Dec. 7, 2000, entitled "Systems, Methods and Devices for Trusted Transactions", published as WO/2001/043026; Publication Date: Jun. 14, 2001.
101PCT Application No. PCT/US95/08159, filed Jun. 26, 1995, entitled, "Digital Information Commodities Exchange with Virtual Menuing", published as WO/1997/001892; Publication Date: Jan. 16, 1997.
102PCT Application No. PCT/US96/10257, filed Jun. 7, 1996, entitled "Steganographic Method and Device"—corresponding to—EPO Application No. 96919405.9, entitled "Steganographic Method and Device", published as WO/1996/042151; Publication Date: Dec. 27, 1996.
103PCT Application No. PCT/US97/00651, filed Jan. 16, 1997, entitled, "Method for Stega-Cipher Protection of Computer Code", published as WO/1997/026732; Publication Date: Jul. 24, 1997.
104PCT Application No. PCT/US97/00652, filed Jan. 17, 1997, entitled, "Method for an Encrypted Digital Watermark", published as WO/1997/026733; Publication Date: Jul. 24, 1997.
105PCT Application No. PCT/US97/11455, filed Jul. 2, 1997, entitled, "Optimization Methods for the Insertion, Protection and Detection of Digital Watermarks in Digitized Data", published as WO/1998/002864; Publication Date: Jan. 22, 1998.
106PCT Application No. PCT/US99/07262, filed Apr. 2, 1999, entitled, "Multiple Transform Utilization and Applications for Secure Digital Watermarking", published as WO/1999/052271; Publication Date: Oct. 14, 1999.
107PCT International Search Report in PCT/US00/06522.
108PCT International Search Report in PCT/US00/18411.
109PCT International Search Report in PCT/US00/21189.
110PCT International Search Report in PCT/US00/33126.
111PCT International Search Report in PCT/US95/08159.
112PCT International Search Report in PCT/US96/10257.
113PCT International Search Report in PCT/US97/00651.
114PCT International Search Report in PCT/US97/00652.
115PCT International Search Report in PCT/US97/11455.
116PCT International Search Report, completed Apr. 4, 1997; authorized officer Bernarr Earl Gregory (PCT/US97/00651) (1 page).
117PCT International Search Report, completed Jan. 26, 2001; authorized officer Gilberto Barron (PCT/US00/21189) (3 pages).
118PCT International Search Report, completed Jul. 12, 1999; authorized officer R. Hubeau (PCT/US99/07262) (3 pages).
119PCT International Search Report, completed Jul. 20, 2001; authorized officer A. Sigolo (PCT/US00/18411) (5 pages).
120PCT International Search Report, completed Jun. 11, 1996; authorized officer Salvatore Cangialosi (PCT/US96/10257) (4 pages).
121PCT International Search Report, completed Jun. 30, 2000; authorized officer Paul E. Callahan (PCT/US00/06522) (7 pages).
122PCT International Search Report, completed Mar. 20, 2001; authorized officer P. Corcoran (PCT/US00/33126) (6 pages).
123PCT International Search Report, completed May 6, 1997; authorized officer Salvatore Cangialosi (PCT/US97/00652) (3 pages).
124PCT International Search Report, completed Oct. 23, 1997; authorized officer David Cain (PCT/US97/11455) (1 page).
125PCT International Search Report, completed Sep. 13, 1995; authorized officer Huy D. Vu (PCT/US95/08159) (2 pages).
126PCT International Search Report, date of mailing Mar. 15, 2001; authorized officer Marja Brouwers (PCT/US00/29522) (5 pages).
127Phil Collins(Testify) Atlantic, Pre-Release CD image, 2002, 1 page.
128Pohlmann, Ken C., "Principles of Digital Audio", 2nd Ed., 1991, pp. 1-9, 19-25, 30-33, 41-48, 54-57, 86-107, 375-387.
129Pohlmann, Ken C., "Principles of Digital Audio", 3rd Ed., 1995, pp. 32-37, 40-48:138, 147-149, 332, 333, 364, 499-501, 508-509, 564-571.
130Pohlmann, Ken C., Principles of Digital Audio, 2nd Ed., 1991, pp. 1-9, 19-25,30-33,41-48,54-57,83-107,375-387.
131Pohlmann, Ken C., Principles of Digital Audio, 3rd Ed., 1995, pp. 32-37, 40-48, 138, 147-149,332,333,364, 499-501,508-509,564-571.
132PortalPlayer, PP5002 digital Management system-on-chip, May 1, 2003, 4 pages.
133PortalPlayer, PP5002 digital media management system-on-chip, May 1, 2003, 4 pp.
134Press, et al., "Numerical Recipes in C", Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988, pp. 398-417.
135Press, et al., Numerical Recipes In C, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988, pp. 398-417.
136Puate, Joan et al., "Using Fractal Compression Scheme to Embed a Digital Signature into an Image", SPIE-96 Proceedings, vol. 2915, Mar. 1997, pp. 108-118.
137Puate, Joan et al., Using Fractal Compression Scheme to Embed a Digital Signature into an Image, SPIE-96 Proceedings, vol. 2915, Mar. 1997, pp. 108-118.
138QuinStreet Inc. 2010 What is steganography?—A word definition from the Webopedia Computer Dictionary http://www.webopedia.com/terms/steganography.html.
139Radiohead ("Hail To The Thief"), EMI Music Group-Capitol, Pre-Release CD image, 2003, 1 page.
140Radiohead ("Hail To The Thief"), EMI Music Group—Capitol, Pre-Release CD image, 2003, 1 page.
141Rivest, et al., "Pay Word and Micromint: Two Simple Micropayment Schemes," MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, Cambridge, MA, May 7, 1996 pp. 1-18.
142Rivest, et al., "Pay Word and Micromint: Two Simple Micropayment Schemes," MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, Cambridge, MA, May 7, 1996, pp. 1-18.
143Rivest, et al., "PayWord and Micromint: Two Simple Micropayment Schemes," MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, Cambridge, MA, Apr. 27, 2001, pp. 1-18.
144Rivest, R. "Chaffing and Winnowing: Confidentiality without Encryption", MIT Lab for Computer Science, http://people.csail.mit.edu/rivest/Chaffing.txt Apr. 24, 1998, 9 pp.
145Rivest, R. "Chaffing and Winnowing: Confidentiality without Encryption", MIT Lab for Computer Science, http://people.csail.mit.edu/rivest/Chaffing.txt, Apr. 24, 1998, 9 pp.
146Rivest,et al., PayWord and MicroMint: Two simple micropayment schemes, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, Cambrdidge, MA 02139, Apr. 27, 2001. pp. 1-18.
147Ross Anderson, "Stretching the Limits of Steganography," LNCS, vol. 1174, May/Jun. 1996, 10 pages, ISBN: 3-540-61996-8.
148Sarkar, M. "An Assessment of Pricing Mechanisms for the Internet-A Regulatory Imperative", presented MIT Workshop on Internet Economics, Mar. 1995 http://www.press.vmich.edu/iep/works/SarkAsses.html on.
149Sarkar, M. "An Assessment of Pricing Mechanisms for the Internet—A Regulatory Imperative", presented MIT Workshop on Internet Economics, Mar. 1995 http://www.press.vmich.edu/iep/works/SarkAsses.html on.
150Sarkar, M. "An Assessment of Pricing Mechanisms for the Internet—A Regulatory Imperative", presented MIT Workshop on Internet Economics, Mar. 1995, http://www press vmich edu/iep/works/ SarkAssess html on.
151Schneider, M., et al. "A Robust Content Based Digital Signature for Image Authentication," Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing (IC. Lausanne) Sep. 16-19, 1996, pp. 227-230, IEEE ISBN.
152Schneider, M., et al., "Robust Content Based Digital Signature for Image Authentication," Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing (IC. Lausanne), Sep. 16-19, 1996, pp. 227-230, IEEE ISBN:.
153Schneier, Bruce, Applied Cryptography, 1st Ed., pp. 67-68, 1994.
154Schneier, Bruce, Applied Cryptography, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, pp. 9-10, 1996.
155Schneier, Bruce, Applied Cryptography, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1994, pp. 68, 69, 387-392, 1-57, 273-275, 321-324.
156Schneier, Bruce, Applied Cryptography, John Wiley & Sons, inc., New York, 1994, pp. 68,69,387-392,1-57,273-275,321-324.
157Schunter, M. et al., "A Status Report on the SEMPER framework for Secure Electronic Commerce", Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, Sep. 30, 1998, pp. 1501-1510 vol. 30 No. 16-18 NL North Holland.
158Schunter, M. et al., "A Status Report on the Semper framework for Secure Electronic Commerce", Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, Sep. 30, 1998, pp. 1501-1510 vol. 30 No. 16-18, N1, North Holland.
159Sirbu, M. et al., "Net Bill: An Internet Commerce System Optimized for Network Delivered Services", Digest of Papers of the Computer Society Computer Conference (Spring) Mar. 5, 1995 pp. 20-25 vol. CONF40.
160Sirbu, M. et al., "Net Bill: An Internet Commerce System Optimized for Network Delivered Services", Digest of Papers of the Computer Society Computer Conference (Spring), Mar. 5, 1995, pp. 20-25, vol. CONF40.
161Sklar, Bernard, Digital Communications, pp. 601-603 (1988).
162Sklar,Bernard, Digital Communications, pp. 601-603 (1998).
163Smith, et al. "Modulation and Information Hiding in Images", Springer Verlag, 1st Int'l Workshop, Cambridge, UK, May 30-Jun. 1, 1996, pp. 207-227.
164Smith, et al., Modulation and Information Hiding in Images, Springer Verlag, 1st Int'l Workshop, Cambridge, UK, May 30-Jun. 1, 1996, pp. 207-227.
165Staind (The Singles 1996-2006), Wamer Music—Atlantic, Pre-Release CD image, 2006, 1 page.
166Staind (The Singles 1996-2006), Warner Music-Atlantic, Pre-Release CD image, 2006, 1 page.
167Staind (The Singles 1996-2006), Warner Music—Atlantic, Pre-Release CD image, 2006, 1 page.
168Steinauer D. D., et al., "Trust and Traceability in Electronic Commerce", Standard View, Sep. 1997, pp. 118-124, vol. 5 No. 3, ACM, USA.
169Supplementary European Search Report in EP 96919405.
170Supplementary European Search Report in EP00919398.
171Supplementary European Search Report, completed Jun. 27, 2002; authorized officer M. Schoeyer (EP 00 91 9398) (1 page).
172Supplementary European Search Report, completed Mar. 5, 2004; authorized officer J. Hazel (EP 96 91 9405) (1 page).
173Swanson, Mitchell D., et al. "Robust Data Hiding for Images", 7th IEEE Digital Signal Processing Workshop, Leon, Norway. Sep. 1-4, 1996, pp. 37-40.
174Swanson, Mitchell D., et al., Robust Data Hiding for Images, 7th IEEE Digital Signal Processing Workshop, Leon, Norway, Sep. 1-4, 1996, pp. 37-40.
175Swanson, Mitchell D.,et al., "Transparent Robust Image Watermarking", Proc. of the 1996 IEEE Int'l Conf. on Image Processing, vol. 111, 1996 , pp. 211-214.
176Swanson, Mitchell D.,et al., Transparent Robust Image Watermarking, Proc. of the 1996 IEEE Int'l Conf. on Image Processing, vol. 111, 1996, pp. 211-214.
177Ten Kate, W. et al., "Digital Audio Carrying Extra Information", IEEE, CH 2847-2/90/0000-1097, (1990).
178Ten Kate, W. et al., A New Surround-Stereo-Surround Coding Techniques, J. Audio Eng.Soc., vol. 40,No. 5,pp. 376-383 (1992).
179Tirkel, A.Z., "A Two-Dimensional Digital Watermark", Scientific Technology, 686, 14, date unknown.
180Tirkel, A.Z., A Two-Dimensional Digital Watermark, DICTA '95, Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Dec. 5-8, 1995, p. 7.
181Tirkel, A.Z., Image Watermarking—A Spread Spectrum Application, ISSSTA '96, Sep. 1996, Mainz, German, pp. 6.
182Tirkel,A.Z., "A Two-Dimensional Digital Watermark", DICTA '95, Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Dec. 5-8, 1995, pp. 7.
183Tirkel,A.Z., "Image Watermarking-A Spread Spectrum Application", ISSSTA '96, Sep. 1996, Mainz, German, pp. 6.
184Tirkel,A.Z., "Image Watermarking—A Spread Spectrum Application", ISSSTA '96, Sep. 1996, Mainz, German, pp. 6.
185Tomsich, et al., "Towards a secure and de-centralized digital watermarking infrastructure for the protection of Intellectual Property", in Electronic Commerce and Web Technologies, Proceedings (ECWEB)(2000).
186Tomsich, et al., "Towards a secure and de-centralized digital watermarking infrastructure for the protection of Intellectual Property", in Electronic Commerce and Web Technologies, Proceedings (ECWEB.
187U.S. Appl. No. 08/674,726, filed Jul. 2, 1996, entitled "Exchange Mechanisms for Digital Information Packages with Bandwidth Securitization, Multichannel Digital Watermarks, and Key Management", published as 7362775 Apr. 22, 2008.
188U.S. Appl. No. 09/046,627, filed Mar. 24, 1998, entitled "Method for Combining Transfer Function with Predetermined Key Creation", published as 6,598,162 Jul. 22, 2003.
189U.S. Appl. No. 09/053,628, filed Apr. 2, 1998, entitled "Multiple Transform Utilization and Application for Secure Digital Watermarking", 6,205,249 Mar. 20, 2001.
190U.S. Appl. No. 09/545,589, filed Apr. 7, 2000, entitled "Method and System for Digital Watermarking", published as 7007166 Feb. 28, 2006.
191U.S. Appl. No. 09/594,719, filed Jun. 16, 2000, entitled "Utilizing Data Reduction in Steganographic and Cryptographic Systems", published as 7,123,718 Oct. 17, 2006.
192U.S. Appl. No. 09/644,098, filed Aug. 23, 2000, entitled "Multiple Transform Utilization and Application for Secure Digital Watermarking", published as 7,035,409 Apr. 25, 2006.
193U.S. Appl. No. 09/657,181, filed Sep. 7, 2000, entitled "Method and Device For Monitoring And Analyzing Signals", published as 7,346,472 Mar. 18, 2008.
194U.S. Appl. No. 09/671,739, filed Sep. 29, 2000, entitled "Method And Device For Monitoring And Analyzing Signals".
195U.S. Appl. No. 09/731,039, filed Dec. 7, 2000, entitled "System and Methods for Permitting Open Access to Data Objects and for Securing Data within the Data Objects", published as 2002-0071556 A1 Jun. 13, 2002.
196U.S. Appl. No. 09/731,040, filed Dec. 7, 2000, entitled "Systems, Methods And Devices For Trusted Transactions", 2002-0010684 A1 Jan. 24, 2002.
197U.S. Appl. No. 09/767,733, filed Jan. 24, 2001 entitled "Multiple Transform Utilization and Application for Secure Digital Watermarking", published as 2001-0010078 A1 Jul. 26, 2001.
198U.S. Appl. No. 09/789,711, filed Feb. 22, 2001, entitled "Optimization Methods for the Insertion, Protection, and Detection of Digital Watermarks in Digital Data", published as 2001-0029580 A1 Oct. 11, 2001.
199U.S. Appl. No. 09/956,262, filed Sep. 20, 2001, entitled "Improved Security Based on Subliminal and Supraliminal Channels For Data Objects", published as 2002-0056041 A1 May 9, 2002.
200U.S. Appl. No. 10/049,101, filed Feb. 8, 2002, entitled "A Secure Personal Content Server", published as 7,475,246 Jan. 6, 2009.
201U.S. Appl. No. 10/369,344, filed Feb. 18, 2003, entitled "Optimization Methods for the Insertion, Protection, and Detection of Digital Watermarks in Digitized Data", published as 2003-0219143 A1 Nov. 27, 2003.
202U.S. Appl. No. 10/417,231, filed Apr. 17, 2003, entitled "Methods, Systems And Devices For Packet Watermarking And Efficient Provisioning Of Bandwidth", published as 2003-0200439 Al Oct. 23, 2003.
203U.S. Appl. No. 10/602,777, filed Jun. 25, 2003, entitled "Method for Combining Transfer Function with Predetermined Key Creation", published as 2004-0086119 A1 May 6, 2004.
204U.S. Appl. No. 10/805,484, filed Mar. 22, 2004, entitled "Method And Device For Monitoring And Analyzing Signals", published as 2004-0243540 A1 Dec. 2, 2004.
205U.S. Appl. No. 11/026,234, filed Dec. 30, 2004, entitled "Z-Transform Implementation of Digital Watermarks" , published as 2005-0135615 A1 Jun. 23, 2005.
206U.S. Appl. No. 11/050,779, filed Feb. 7, 2005, entitled "Steganographic Method and Device", published as 20050177727 A1 Aug. 11, 2005.
207U.S. Appl. No. 11/244,213, filed Oct. 5, 2005, entitled "Method and System for Digital Watermarking", published as 2006-0101269 A1 May 11, 2006.
208U.S. Appl. No. 11/358,874, filed Feb. 21, 2006, entitled "Multiple Transform Utilization and Application for Secure Digital Watermarking", published as 2006-0140403 A1 Jun. 29, 2006.
209U.S. Appl. No. 11/458,639, filed Jul. 19, 2006 entitled "Methods and Systems for Inserting Watermarks in Digital Signals", published as 20060251291 A1 Nov. 9, 2006.
210U.S. Appl. No. 11/482,654, filed Jul. 7, 2006, entitled "Optimization Methods for the Insertion, Protection, and Detection of Digital Watermarks in Digitized Data", published as 2006-0285722 A1 Dec. 21, 2006.
211U.S. Appl. No. 11/497,822, filed Aug. 2, 2006, entitled "Optimization Methods for the Insertion, Protection, and Detection of Digital Watermarks in Digital Data", published as 2007-0011458 A1 Jan. 11, 2007.
212U.S. Appl. No. 11/512,701, filed Aug. 29, 2006, entitled "Systems, Methods And Devices For Trusted Transactions", published as 2007-0028113 A1 Feb. 1, 2007.
213U.S. Appl. No. 11/518,806, filed Sep. 11, 2006, entitled "Improved Security Based on Subliminal and Supraliminal Channels For Data Objects", 2008-0028222 A1 Jan. 31, 2008.
214U.S. Appl. No. 11/519,467, filed Sep. 12, 2006, entitled "Utilizing Data Reduction in Steganographic and Cryptographic Systems", published as 2007-0064940 A1 Mar. 22, 2007.
215U.S. Appl. No. 11/592,079, filed Nov. 2, 2006, entitled "Linear Predictive Coding Implementation of Digital Watermarks", published as 2007-0079131 A1 Apr. 5, 2007.
216U.S. Appl. No. 11/599,838, filed Nov. 15, 2006, entitled "Optimization Methods for the Insertion, Protection, and Detection of Digital Watermarks in Digital Data", published as 2007-0226506 A1 Sep. 27, 2007.
217U.S. Appl. No. 11/599,964, filed Nov. 15, 2006, entitled "Optimization Methods for the Insertion, Protection, and Detection of Digital Watermarks in Digital Data", published as 2008-0046742 A1 Feb. 21, 2008.
218U.S. Appl. No. 11/647,861, filed Dec. 29, 2006, entitled "System and Methods for Permitting Open Access to Data Objects and for Securing Data within the Data Objects", published as 2007-0110240 A1 May 17, 2007.
219U.S. Appl. No. 11/649,026, filed Jan. 3, 2007, entitled "Method and System for Digital Watermarking", published as 2007-0113094 A1 May 17, 2007.
220U.S. Appl. No. 12/590,553, filed Nov. 10, 2009, entitled "Optimization Methods for the Insertion, Protection, and Detection of Digital Watermarks in Digital Data", published as 20100077219 A1 Mar. 25, 2010.
221U.S. Appl. No. 12/590,681, filed Nov. 12, 2009, entitled "Optimization Methods for the Insertion, Protection, and Detection of Digital Watermarks in Digital Data", published as 20100064140 A1 Mar. 11, 2010.
222U.S. Appl. No. 12/592,331, filed Nov. 23, 2009, entitled "Optimization Methods for the Insertion, Protection, and Detection of Digital Watermarks in Digital Data", published as 20100077220 A1 Mar. 25, 2010.
223U.S. Appl. No. 12/655,036, filed Dec. 22, 2009, entitled "Utilizing Data Reduction in Steganographic and Cryptographic Systems", published as 20100153734 A1 Jun. 17, 2010.
224U.S. Appl. No. 12/655,357, filed Dec. 22, 2009, entitled "Method and Device for Monitoring and Analyzing Signals", published as 20100106736 A1 Apr. 29, 2010.
225U.S. Appl. No. 12/665,002, filed Dec. 22, 2009, entitled "Method for Combining Transfer Function with Predetermined Key Creation", published as 20100182570 A1 Jul. 22, 2010.
226U.S. Appl. No. 60/169,274, filed Dec. 7, 1999, entitled "Systems, Methods And Devices For Trusted Transactions".
227U.S. Appl. No. 60/222,023, filed Jul. 31, 2007 entitled "Method and apparatus for recognizing sound and signals in high noise and distortion".
228U.S. Appl. No. 60/234,199, filed Sep. 20, 2000, "Improved Security Based on Subliminal and Supraliminal Channels For Data Objects".
229US. Appl. No. 08/999,766, filed Jul. 23, 1997, entitled "Steganographic Method and Device", published as 7568100 Jul. 28, 2009.
230Van Schyandel, et al., "Towards a Robust Digital Watermark", Second Asain Image Processing Conference, Dec. 6-8, 1995, Singapore, vol. 2, pp. 504-508.
231Van Schyandel, et al., Towards a Robust Digital Watermark, Second Asain Image Processing Conference, Dec. 6-8, 1995, Singapore, vol. 2, pp. 504-508.
232Van Schyndel, et al., "A digital Watermark," IEEE Int'l Computer Processing Conference, Austin,TX, Nov. 13-16, 1994, pp. 86-90.
233van Schyndel, et al., A digital Watermark, IEEE Int'l Computer Processing Conference, Austin, TX, Nov. 13-16, 1994, pp. 86-90.
234VeriDisc, "The Search for a Rational Solution to Digital Rights Management (DRM)", http://64.244.235.240/news/whitepaper,/docs/veridisc.sub.--white.sub.--paper.pdf, 2001, 15 pp.
235VeriDisc, "The Search for a Rational Solution to Digital Rights Management (DRM)", http://64.244.235.240/news/whitepaper,/docs/veridisc—white—paper.pdf, 2001, 15 pages.
236Wayback Machine, dated Aug. 26, 2007, http://web.archive,org/web/20070826151732/http://www.screenplaysmag.com/t-abid/96/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/495/Default.aspx/.
237Wayback Machine, dated Jan. 17, 1999, http://web.archive.org/web/19990117020420/http://www.netzero.com/, accessed on Feb. 19, 2008.
238Wong, Ping Wah, "A Public Key Watermark for Image Verification and Authentication," IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 1, Oct. 4-7, 1998, pp. 455-459.
239Wong, Ping Wah. "A Public Key Watermark for Image Verification and Authentication," IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 1 Oct. 4-7, 1998, pp. 455-459.
240Zhao, Jian et al., "Embedding Robust Labels into Images for Copyright Protection", Proceeding of the Know Right '95 Conference, pp. 242-251.
241Zhao, Jian et al., Embedding Robust Labels into Images for Copyright Protection, (xp 000571976), pp. 242-251, 1995.
242Zhao, Jian et al., Embedding Robust Labels into Images for Copyright Protection, Proceedings of the Know right ZZZ95 Conference, pp. 242-251.
243Zhao, Jian, "A WWW Service to Embed and Prove Digital Copyright Watermarks", Proc. of the european conf. on Multimedia Applications, Services & Techniques Louvain-L A-Nevve Belgium May 1996.
244Zhao, Jian. "A WWW Service to Embed and Prove Digital Copyright Watermarks", Proc. of the European conf. on Multimedia Applications, Services & Techniques Louvain-La-Nevve Belgium May 1996.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US20160171490 *12 Dec 201416 Jun 2016International Business Machines CorporationSearchable transaction based commerce database
US20160171585 *11 Jun 201516 Jun 2016International Business Machines CorporationSearchable transaction based commerce database
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
6 Aug 2013CCCertificate of correction
17 Aug 2015ASAssignment
Owner name: WISTARIA TRADING LTD, BERMUDA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MOSKOWITZ, SCOTT A.;REEL/FRAME:036342/0953
Effective date: 20150814
17 Oct 2016FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8