|Publication number||USRE42726 E1|
|Application number||US 11/971,778|
|Publication date||20 Sep 2011|
|Filing date||9 Jan 2008|
|Priority date||11 May 2000|
|Also published as||US6985937, USRE44686|
|Publication number||11971778, 971778, US RE42726 E1, US RE42726E1, US-E1-RE42726, USRE42726 E1, USRE42726E1|
|Inventors||Srinivasan Keshav, Rosen Sharma, Shaw Chuang|
|Original Assignee||Digital Asset Enterprises, L.L.C.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (144), Non-Patent Citations (75), Referenced by (10), Classifications (15), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is related to U.S. patent Ser. No. 09/499,098, entitled “Selective Interception of System Calls,” by Borislav D. Deianov et al., filed Feb. 4, 2000, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,546,546 and commonly assigned with the present application. The subject matter of this related application is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.
1. Field of Invention
The present invention relates generally to resource allocation for a virtual server, and more particularly, to monitoring and dynamically modifying the resource allocation for a virtual server based upon usage.
2. Background of the Invention
Networked computer resources are growing more popular as the benefits of sharing computing resources become evident. One of the fastest-growing segments of the Internet is the network market. Network systems contain common elements, generally including a dedicated local server to maintain the shared network data, and a communications system for providing data communication services between devices on the network. Data communications services and servers are not easy to configure, manage, and maintain. Thus, there is an incentive for Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to provide such network services and servers, thereby relieving corporations of the burden of providing these services directly.
It is not economically feasible for an ISP to remotely manage servers located on a customer's premises, and support many different customers in this fashion. Rather, an ISP would prefer to offer network services to multiple customers while keeping all of the server host computers within a central location of the ISP for ease of management. Accordingly, ISPs typically dedicate one or more physical host computers as each individual customer's server(s), and maintain each host computer in the centralized facility. This means the ISP will have to own and maintain potentially large numbers of physical host computers, at least one for each customer's server or private network. However, most customers will neither require nor be amenable to paying for the user of an entire host computer. Generally, only a fraction of the processing power, storage, and other resources of a host computer will be required to meet the needs of an individual customer.
Different customers have different virtual server needs. For example, a company A providing large quantities of data and information to its employees and customers will want to ensure that its virtual servers are always available to perform a large number of tasks. Company A may be willing to pay a premium for a guaranteed high quality of service, with high server availability and large amounts of processing power always on-call. By contrast, a small individual B who merely uses his virtual server for back-up file storage space has very different quality of service requirements. Customer B needs (and wishes to pay for) only a limited amount of storage space to be available on an intermittent basis.
When servicing the needs of multiple customers having different needs, it is desirable to provide a virtual server that is dynamic, not static, in its allocation of resources. A customer's virtual server is typically assigned a fixed level of resources, corresponding to either a fixed percentage of the capacity of a particular physical host (for example, the operating system may be instructed to allocate twenty percent of the central processing unit cycles to process A and two percent to process B) or a fixed number of units (for example, the operating system may be instructed to allocate X cycles per second to process A and Y cycles per second to process B). However, customers may be unable to anticipate the exact amount of resources they will require, and a static assignment of a particular resource allocation limit may not allow the virtual server system to adapt to changing customer needs.
Instead of requiring customers to select a static level of resources, a better resource allocation model is structured along the lines of electricity pricing—a customer receives what he needs, and be pays for what he receives. Referring back to a previous example, small customer B may initially request a very low level of resources. However, should his new home business suddenly expand, he may quickly bump up against the limit of the server resources he originally requested. In this case, it would be preferable if customer B's virtual server resources were able to automatically, dynamically adjust to his increased resource needs.
Thus it is desirable to provide a system and method for a virtual server capable of providing quality of service guarantees for a customer, which is also capable of adjusting the quality of service based upon changing customer demand. It is desirable for such a system to dynamically adjust the physical host resources allocated to a virtual server.
The present invention dynamically adjusts the quality of service guarantees for virtual servers based upon the resource demands experienced by the virtual servers. Virtual servers having individual quality of service guarantees are distributed among a group of physical hosts. Each physical host's resources are allocated among the physical host's resident virtual servers. The resources allocated to a particular virtual server may be dynamically adjusted in response to changing virtual server resource needs.
Occasionally, a physical host executing a virtual server may not have additional resources to allocate to a virtual server requiring increased resources. In this instance, a virtual server hosted by the overloaded physical host is transferred to another physical host with sufficient resources.
In one embodiment, a dynamic resource configuration module monitors resource denials received by virtual servers and determines if a virtual server is overloaded based upon the resource denials. A resource denial may refer to any request by the virtual server that cannot be immediately serviced, such as a denial of a request to create a file or a network packet delay. If the resource denials received by a particular virtual server exceed a pre-specified limit, the virtual server is considered overloaded and a request is made for additional resources.
The resource usage of the physical hosts within the system is monitored. A load-balancing function is performed to select the appropriate physical host when a virtual server transfer becomes necessary. A virtual server is transferred between physical hosts with minimal impact upon the operation of the virtual server.
The features and advantages described in the specification are not all-inclusive, and particularly, many additional features and advantages will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art in view of the drawings, specification, and claims hereof. Moreover, it should be noted that the language used in the specification has been principally selected for readability and instructional purposes, and may not have been selected to delineate or circumscribe the inventive subject matter, resort to the claims being necessary to determine such inventive subject matter.
The figures depict a preferred embodiment of the present invention for purposes of illustration only. One skilled in the art will readily recognize from the following discussion that alternative embodiments of the structures and methods illustrated herein may be employed without departing from the principles of the invention described herein.
Reference will now be made in detail to several embodiments of the present invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. Wherever practicable, the same reference numbers will be used throughout the drawings to refer to the same or like parts. The term “virtual server” as used herein refers to a virtual server capable of receiving a quality of service guarantee from a physical host. Multiple virtual servers may reside in a single physical host, and different virtual servers on the same physical host may receive different quality of service guarantee.
The group of physical hosts 160 contains a group of virtual servers 162. Physical host 160A contains virtual servers 162A and 162B; physical host 160B contains virtual servers 162C, 162D and 162E; and physical host 160C contains virtual servers 162F and 162G.
In one embodiment, each individual virtual server 162 has a different quality of service guarantee. Different quality of service guarantees are implemented by allocating different amounts of the resources of each physical host machine 160 to servicing each of the virtual servers 162. Physical host 160 resources may be allocated as percentages of the resources of a particular physical host 160, or as a particular number of units within a physical host 160 (for example, the operating system may be instructed to allocate X cycles per second to process A and Y cycles per second to process B). In the embodiment shown in
Virtual Server Resource Allocation in FIG. 1
15% of physical host 160A
60% of physical host 160A
10% of physical host 160B
10% of physical host 160B
10% of physical host 160B
20% of physical host 160C
30% of physical host 160C
The virtual servers 162 each may consume a different amount of the resources of the physical host machines 160. The resources of a physical host machine comprise the set of functions and features the physical host machine uses in implementing tasks for each virtual server. Examples of resources include disk space, memory, network capacity and processing cycles (CPU resources). As shown in
A resource allocation for a virtual server is specified as a “quality of service guarantee” for that particular server. Each physical host stores quality of service guarantees for the virtual servers it hosts. As a physical host performs processes associated with a particular virtual server, the physical host accesses the stored quality of service information to enable the physical host to request the correct quality of service from the operating system kernel of the physical host.
One implementation for storing quality of service guarantee information is a quality of service parameter table. A quality of service parameter table in each physical host 160 associates each virtual server 162 resident in the particular physical host 160 with quality of service parameters. These parameters are used to allocate physical host 160 resources for each resident virtual server 162. For example, physical host 160A includes a quality of service parameter table, which lists resident virtual servers 162A and 162B. The parameter table lists whatever virtual servers are resident in the physical host. As virtual server resource allocations are changed, and as virtual servers are transferred between physical hosts, the corresponding quality of service parameter tables are updated to reflect these changes and transfers. In another embodiment, a single master quality of service parameter table can coordinate multiple slave tables associated with each physical host.
Dynamic resource configuration module 100 includes a virtual server resource monitor 110, a virtual server resource modifier 120, a physical host load balancer 130, a dynamic virtual server mover 140, and a file system 150. In one embodiment, these modules are portions of the software code implementing the dynamic resource configuration module 100. The dynamic resource configuration module 100 is further communicatively coupled to each physical host 160.
The virtual server resource monitor 110 monitors the resource usage of the virtual servers 162 to determine if they are overloaded. The virtual server resource modifier 120 dynamically modifies the resource allocations of the virtual servers 162 on an as-needed basis. The physical host load-balancer 130 periodically monitors the resource usage of the physical hosts 160, and uses the dynamic virtual server mover 140 to transfer virtual servers 162 between physical hosts 160 as needed to balance the loads of the physical hosts 160. The file system 150 is used for storing state information associated with a particular virtual server 162 when transferring the particular virtual server 162 to a different physical host 160. In another embodiment, the file system 150 is not used, and state information is copied directly from one physical host to another physical host to transfer a virtual server.
A determination is made 220 as to whether a particular virtual server resource is overloaded. The number of times a particular resource denial is received in a time window is averaged using one of a number of well-known techniques. If the average number of denials is beyond a pre-configured threshold, the virtual server is determined 220 to be overloaded for the corresponding resource. If the virtual server is not determined to be overloaded, the method continues to monitor 210 virtual server resource denials.
If the virtual server is determined to he overloaded, a determination is made 230 as to whether the corresponding resource of the physical host hosting the virtual server resource is also overloaded. For example, referring to
For example, assume virtual server 162B requests an additional memory allocation of 1 megabyte. If physical host 160A has only 100 kilobytes of memory available (the rest already having been allocated to virtual servers 162A and 162B), then physical host 160A cannot service virtual server 162B's request and physical host 160A is considered overloaded. This same principle may be extended to other types of resources.
If the particular physical host resource is not determined to be overloaded the virtual server resource allocation within the physical host is increased 240. The method then continues to monitor 210 virtual server resource denials.
However, if the physical host is determined to be overloaded, a new physical host is selected 250 to accommodate the overloaded virtual server and its required resource increases. A variety of different fitting heuristic methods may be used to select a new physical host to execute the virtual server. For example, a first fit method may be used, wherein the first physical host 160 determined to have enough extra resources to accommodate the overloaded virtual server 162 is selected. In a best fit method, the physical host 160 with available resources most closely matching the resource needs of the overloaded virtual server 162 is selected. In an easiest fit method, the physical host 160 with the most available resources is selected to accommodate the overloaded virtual server 162. For the following discussion, assume that physical host 160A is overloaded, and new physical host 160B has been selected to receive virtual server 162B.
Once the new physical host 160B has been selected 250, the virtual server 162B is moved 260 to the new physical host 160B. The virtual server 162B is also allocated its required resource increase. In one embodiment, the old overloaded physical host 160A places state information for the virtual server 162B being transferred into a common file system 150, e.g. in a configuration file or other system file. The new physical host 160B accesses the state information and restarts the virtual server 162B as resident in the new physical host 160B. In another embodiment, the virtual server 162B files are copied directly from the old physical host 160A to the new physical host 160B.
Once the virtual server information transfer is complete, the old physical host 160A has one fewer virtual server, and the new physical host 160B has one additional virtual server. The quality of service tables for both the old and new physical hosts are modified 260 to reflect this change. The quality of service table entries for virtual server 162B will also reflect the virtual server's resource increase.
The virtual server user is transferred 270 from the old physical host (160A) to the new physical host (160B) by transferring the virtual server address. The transfer process may use either “break, then make” timing, or “make, then break” timing. The timing of the transfer process determines whether all processes and configuration information associated with the virtual server to he transferred are first shut down in the old physical host, or first started up in the new physical host, before the virtual server address is transferred. Transferring the virtual server address transfers the virtual server user from one virtual server location to another. For example, using “break, then make” timing, the virtual server 162B is first shut down in the old physical host 160A, a new virtual server is created in new physical host 160B and started up, and the virtual server 162B address is then transferred over to the new physical host 160B. In another embodiment using “make, then break” timing, a new virtual server is created in new physical host 160B and started up, the virtual server 162B address is transferred over to the new physical host 160B, and the virtual server 162B is then shut down in old physical host 160A.
As used herein, the terms “customer,” “user,” and “virtual server user” refer to individuals or groups of individuals accessing the same virtual server. Typically, a virtual server “user” is a group of individuals with a shared association. For example, “user” may collectively refer to the employees of a company, or to certain employees within a division of a company. One company (a “customer”) may have several different users, each corresponding to a different group within the company, and each having many different individuals. Additionally, a “user” may also refer to a single individual.
The process for virtual server resource configuration is dynamic and ongoing during the operation of the virtual servers. After the virtual server user transfer 270 is completed, the process continues to monitor 210 virtual server resource denials.
As before, virtual server resource denials are monitored 210. If a determination 220 is made that a particular virtual server resource is overloaded, and a determination 230 is made that the corresponding physical host resources are not overloaded, the virtual server resource allocation is increased 240.
Next, a timer is set 242 for a pre-specified interval. Upon timer expiry, the method determines 244 whether the newly increased virtual server resource is currently operating at its resource limit. If one or more resource denial signals corresponding to the newly increased virtual server resource are received during the timer period, the virtual server is assumed to be operating at its resource limit.
If the virtual server is determined 244 to be operating at its limit for a particular resource, the method continues 210 to monitor resource denials. However, if the virtual server is not operating at its limit for a particular resource, the method decreases 246 the virtual server resource allocation by a pre-specified amount. Steps 242, 244, and 246 allow the dynamic resource configuration module 100 to reclaim unused resources within the virtual server system, by temporarily increasing resources allocated to a virtual server as needed.
In another embodiment, a recently transferred virtual server 162 may also allow unused resources to be reclaimed by the virtual server 162's new physical host. In this embodiment, step 270 would be followed by steps 242, 244 and 246.
Many different types of input signals 312 may be processed to determine if a resource is overloaded. The virtual server resource monitor 110 monitors different types of resource denials, which are instances wherein a request for additional resources is either implicitly or explicitly denied.
In order to associate resource request denials with a particular virtual server executing in a physical host computer, certain selected system calls are intercepted. For example, not all CPU scheduling within the physical host computer is associated with a virtual server. The monitor 110 must be able to distinguish between resource requests made from virtual servers, and other resource requests. The monitor 110 must also be able to distinguish between resource requests made by different virtual servers within the same physical server.
A system call performs some system operation, such as the access of a system hardware or software resource, when the system call is executed. In order to make a system call, arguments are programmatically loaded into specific registers of the central processing unit on which the operating system is executing. One of these arguments identifies the specific system call that is being made. This argument is typically in the form of a number that is an offset into the operating system interrupt vector table, which contains pointers to the actual executable code of the system calls. The other loaded arguments include parameters to be passed to the system call.
Once the arguments have been loaded, a software interrupt is generated, signaling to the operating system that a process is requesting execution of a system call. The operating system reads the registers, and executes the requested system call with the specified parameters. The system call executes and performs the desired functionality. If the system call generates a return value, it places the generated return value (or a pointer thereto) in a pre-designated register where it can be accessed by the calling process.
In order to intercept a system call, a pointer in an interrupt vector table to a system call is replaced with a pointer to alternative object code to be executed instead of the system call. Then, when the system call is made, the alternative object code will execute instead. The alternative object code is known as a system call wrapper.
The method of the related application may be used to selectively intercept system calls such that a system call wrapper only executes when a system call is made by a select process associated with one of the virtual servers being monitored. When a system call is made by a non-select process, the default system call is executed. Furthermore, only certain types of system calls relating to resource allocation, as described above, are selectively intercepted.
The system call wrapper for the intercepted system call allows the resource request by a particular virtual server and the resulting response to be monitored. Request denial responses are monitored by the virtual server resource monitor 110. As will be evident to one of skill in the art, the specific system calls to be monitored will be system-dependent, and may vary based upon the type of operating system and physical server machine being used.
Each resource denial signal 312 is input into an individual resource denial table 320 for tracking purposes. Create file denial signals 312A are recorded in a disk denial table 320A; memory allocation denial signals 312B are recorded in a memory denial table 320B; network packet delay signals 312C are recorded in a network denial table 320C; and CPU process scheduling delay signals 312D are recorded in a CPU denial table 320D. A calculation 330 is performed on the signals stored in each table to determine the mean number of times a particular resource denial occurs in a pre-specified time window. Different time windows may be specified for each type of resource denial. The calculation of mean resource denials is performed individually for each different type of resource denial being monitored (330A, 330B, 330C and 330D).
The mean number of resource denials may be calculated using one of several well-known techniques for averaging a signal rate over a period of time. Each technique determines whether the number of received resource denial signals a received in a particular time window t exceeds a certain threshold T:
In one embodiment, a “jumping-window” technique is used. The jumping-window technique measures the number of resource denials a received in consecutive windows of time length t. A new time interval t starts immediately after the end of the last time interval t. In another embodiment, a “moving-window” technique is used. The moving-window technique measures the number of resource denials a received in a continuously moving window of time length t. In the moving-windows technique, all windows of time length t are measured.
The virtual server resource monitor 110 checks 340 if the metric a(t) calculated is beyond the pre-specified threshold T. This determination is made individually for each type of resource denial signal (340A, 340B, 340C and 340D), and need not be made simultaneously. Each different type of resource denial signal 312 may have a different pre-specified threshold T.
If the metric a(t) representing the average resource denial rate does not exceed the threshold T, the method continues to calculate a(t) 330 so that resource denials are continuously monitored. Using the jumping-window technique, after the next consecutive time interval t passes, the method will again check 340 if a(t)>T. Using the moving-windows technique, a continuous loop of steps 330 and 340 is used to measure each continuously-moving window of time t. In another embodiment, a pre-specified schedule for repeating calculating mean resource denials 330 and checking 340 if the threshold T has been exceeded can be established to limit the amount of processing required by the virtual server resource monitor 110.
However, if the metric a(t) does exceed the threshold T, a “resource overloaded” signal is sent 350 to the virtual server resource modifier 120. Each type of resource denial signal 312 has an associated resource overloaded signal.
The modifier 120 waits 410 to receive a resource overloaded signal 350 from the virtual server resource monitor 110. When a resource overloaded signal 350 is received, the modifier 120 checks 420 to determine whether the signal 350 falls within a pre-specified “hysteresis time window” H. The hysteresis time window H check 420 damps the modifier 120 system to avoid rapid changes in the system state. For example, in a situation in which a virtual server has overloaded its existing memory resource allocation, the virtual server may attempt to access memory repeatedly before the memory resource allocation is increased. Each memory access attempt may generate a memory resource overloaded signal 350B. The modifier 120 only needs to respond to one of these signals. The hysteresis time window H check 420 avoids repetitive responses to resource overloaded messages. Thus, the modifier 120 checks 420 whether the most recently received resource overloaded signal 350 (received at T1) is close in time (within the hysteresis time window H) to a previously received resource overloaded signal 350 (received at T0) for a particular resource:
If the recent and previous resource overloaded signals have occurred close enough in time to fall within the pre-specified hysteresis time window H, no further action will be taken and the modifier 120 returns and waits 410 to receive another resource overloaded signal 350. If the current resource overloaded message is not received within the hysteresis time window H, the modifier 120 proceeds to increase 430 the virtual server resource allocation.
The resource allocation for a particular overloaded resource is increased 430 by a pre-specified amount i. Amount i may be specified as a certain percentage of the resources of a physical host, or alternatively amount i may be specified as a certain number of resource units. Amount i may also be specified as a certain percentage of each particular virtual server's current resource allocation, e.g. increase a resource by 5% of its current value. After a particular resource has been increased the modifier 120 sets 440 a timer for a pre-specified time period.
When the timer expires, the modifier 120 determines 450 if the recently increased resource is being fully utilized. In one embodiment, a resource is fully utilized if a corresponding resource denial signal has been received within the timer period 440 after the resource was increased.
If the resource is determined 450 to be fully utilized, the modifier 120 returns and waits 410 for an overloaded signal. However, if it is determined that the resource is not being fully utilized, the modifier 120 decreases 460 the resource by a pre-specified amount d. Amount d may be specified as a certain percentage of the resources of a physical host, or amount d may be specified as a certain number of resource units. Amount d may also be specified as a certain percentage of each particular virtual server's current resource allocation, e.g. decrease a resource by 10% of its current value.
In one embodiment, d (the resource decreases amount) is larger than i (the resource increase amount). This allows unused resources to be decreased aggressively, but overloaded resources to be increased cautiously. In another embodiment, d and i are set such that the resource allocation is increased and decreased by equal amounts. For example, assume that the increase in virtual server resources i is specified as a percentage of each virtual server's current resource allocation. The decrease in virtual server resources d is specified as d=1−(1/1+i), which returns the resource allocation to its previous level. Once the resource reaches a fully utilized state, the modifier 120 then returns to waiting 410.
In this example, physical host load balancing module 130 receives a signal 510 from the virtual server resource modifier 120 indicating that virtual server 162B requires an increased resource allocation. This signal is used as an input 520 into the load-balancing calculator 530. The load-balancing calculator 530 also requests and receives as input the current physical host resource loads 535 from the physical host resource monitor 540.
The physical host resource monitor 540 performs periodic physical host resource checks 545 upon the group of physical hosts 160 (160A, 160B and 160C). Resource checks 545 monitor the current virtual server resource guarantees in each quality of service table for each physical host 160.
The load-balancing calculator 530 determines whether a virtual server's request for additional resources 510 will overload the particular physical host currently hosting the virtual server. Using the example shown in
In one embodiment, the load-balancing calculator 530 uses an easiest fit heuristic to find the physical host that has the most available resources. Each different type of resource is associated with an ordinal and a weight. The ith resource Ri has ordinal i and weight wi. For example, resource R1 represents disk resources, R2 represents memory resources, R3 represents network resources and R4 represents CPU resources. The weights for each respective resource are determined by the system operator.
Let Ri(V) denote the resource requirement of the virtual server under consideration, e.g. virtual server 162B, including the requested resource increase from signal 510. Let Ri(Sj) denote the resource availability at the jth physical host. The load-balancing calculator 530 computes the weighted resource availability of physical host j as the sum over i:
Using the easiest fit heuristic, the load-balancing calculator 530 will select the physical host with the largest weighted resource availability to receive the virtual server 162B (in the example of
It will be understood by one of skill in the art that load-balancing calculator 530 may use other criteria for selecting which virtual server to transfer out of an overloaded physical host. In the embodiment given above, the load balancing calculator 530 transfers the virtual server that has most recently requested additional resources. However, in another embodiment, the load balancing calculator could select, for example, the smallest virtual server within an overloaded physical host for transfer, regardless of which virtual server has recently made a request for increased resources.
In this example, virtual server 162B is transferred from old physical host 160A to new physical host 160B. The mover 140 waits 610 to receive a transfer virtual server signal 560. The mover 140 receives a signal 560 directing the transfer of virtual server 162B from physical host 160A to physical host 160B. The mover 140 directs physical host 160A to store 620 local state information associated with virtual server 162B in the file system 150. As shown in
Mover 140 next directs physical host 160A to stop 630 local processes associated with the virtual server being moved, e.g. virtual server 162B. Mover 140 directs physical host 160B to access 640 the virtual server 162B state information stored in file system 150. Mover 140 directs physical host 160B to start 650 processes associated with virtual server 162B locally. This enables virtual server 162B to begin running locally in physical host 160B. The user of virtual server 162B is then transferred 660 from physical host 160A to physical host 160B by transferring the virtual server 162B address to the new physical host 160B. As explained previously, the mover 140 may use either “make, then break” timing or “break, then make” timing for the transfer process. Although the invention has been described in considerable detail with reference to certain embodiments, other embodiments are possible. As will be understood by those of skill in the art, the invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the essential characteristics thereof. For example, the dynamic resource configuration module may support different numbers of physical hosts. Additionally, different fitting heuristic methods may be used to select physical hosts for receiving transferred virtual servers during load balancing among the physical hosts. Accordingly, the present invention is intended to embrace all such alternatives, modifications, and variations as fall within the spirit and scope of the appended claims and equivalents.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3377624||7 Jan 1966||9 Apr 1968||Ibm||Memory protection system|
|US4177510||2 Dec 1974||4 Dec 1979||Compagnie Internationale pour l'Informatique, CII Honeywell Bull||Protection of data in an information multiprocessing system by implementing a concept of rings to represent the different levels of privileges among processes|
|US5189667||10 Jan 1991||23 Feb 1993||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Method and apparatus for controlling call processing based upon load conditions|
|US5212793||4 Sep 1991||18 May 1993||International Business Machines Corp.||Generic initiators|
|US5226160||18 Jul 1989||6 Jul 1993||Visage||Method of and system for interactive video-audio-computer open architecture operation|
|US5249290||22 Feb 1991||28 Sep 1993||At&T Bell Laboratories||Method of and apparatus for operating a client/server computer network|
|US5263147||1 Mar 1991||16 Nov 1993||Hughes Training, Inc.||System for providing high security for personal computers and workstations|
|US5325530||29 Jan 1993||28 Jun 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Controller for sequential programming tools executed in a parallel computing environment|
|US5437032||19 Aug 1994||25 Jul 1995||International Business Machines Corporation||Task scheduler for a miltiprocessor system|
|US5528753||30 Jun 1994||18 Jun 1996||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for enabling stripped object software monitoring in a computer system|
|US5572680||20 Aug 1993||5 Nov 1996||Fujitsu Limited||Method and apparatus for processing and transferring data to processor and/or respective virtual processor corresponding to destination logical processor number|
|US5584023||27 Dec 1993||10 Dec 1996||Hsu; Mike S. C.||Computer system including a transparent and secure file transform mechanism|
|US5603020||24 Aug 1994||11 Feb 1997||Fujitsu Limited||Method for detecting file names by informing the task of the identification of the directory antecedent to the file|
|US5623492||24 Mar 1995||22 Apr 1997||U S West Technologies, Inc.||Methods and systems for managing bandwidth resources in a fast packet switching network|
|US5636371||7 Jun 1995||3 Jun 1997||Bull Hn Information Systems Inc.||Virtual network mechanism to access well known port application programs running on a single host system|
|US5640595||29 Jun 1993||17 Jun 1997||International Business Machines Corporation||Multimedia resource reservation system with graphical interface for manual input of resource reservation value|
|US5692047||8 Dec 1995||25 Nov 1997||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||System and method for executing verifiable programs with facility for using non-verifiable programs from trusted sources|
|US5706097||13 Sep 1996||6 Jan 1998||Eastman Kodak Company||Index print with a digital recording medium containing still images, motion sequences, and sound sequences|
|US5706453||6 Feb 1995||6 Jan 1998||Cheng; Yang-Leh||Intelligent real-time graphic-object to database linking-actuator for enabling intuitive on-screen changes and control of system configuration|
|US5708774||23 Jul 1996||13 Jan 1998||International Business Machines Corporation||Automated testing of software application interfaces, object methods and commands|
|US5719854||5 Apr 1996||17 Feb 1998||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Efficiently providing multiple grades of service with protection against overloads in shared resources|
|US5727203||31 Mar 1995||10 Mar 1998||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for managing a database in a distributed object operating environment using persistent and transient cache|
|US5748614||6 Jun 1996||5 May 1998||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Method for scheduling message cells leaving an ATM node|
|US5752003||14 Jul 1995||12 May 1998||3 Com Corporation||Architecture for managing traffic in a virtual LAN environment|
|US5761477||4 Dec 1995||2 Jun 1998||Microsoft Corporation||Methods for safe and efficient implementations of virtual machines|
|US5764889||26 Sep 1996||9 Jun 1998||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and apparatus for creating a security environment for a user task in a client/server system|
|US5781550||2 Feb 1996||14 Jul 1998||Digital Equipment Corporation||Transparent and secure network gateway|
|US5799173||21 May 1997||25 Aug 1998||International Business Machines Corporation||Dynamic workload balancing|
|US5809527||23 Dec 1993||15 Sep 1998||Unisys Corporation||Outboard file cache system|
|US5828893||21 Aug 1995||27 Oct 1998||Motorola, Inc.||System and method of communicating between trusted and untrusted computer systems|
|US5838686||22 Apr 1994||17 Nov 1998||Thomson Consumer Electronics, Inc.||System for dynamically allocating a scarce resource|
|US5838916||14 Mar 1997||17 Nov 1998||Domenikos; Steven D.||Systems and methods for executing application programs from a memory device linked to a server|
|US5842002||30 May 1997||24 Nov 1998||Quantum Leap Innovations, Inc.||Computer virus trap|
|US5845129||22 Mar 1996||1 Dec 1998||Philips Electronics North America Corporation||Protection domains in a single address space|
|US5850399||27 Mar 1998||15 Dec 1998||Ascend Communications, Inc.||Hierarchical packet scheduling method and apparatus|
|US5860004||3 Jul 1996||12 Jan 1999||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Code generator for applications in distributed object systems|
|US5864683||12 Oct 1994||26 Jan 1999||Secure Computing Corporartion||System for providing secure internetwork by connecting type enforcing secure computers to external network for limiting access to data based on user and process access rights|
|US5889956||18 Jul 1996||30 Mar 1999||Fujitsu Network Communications, Inc.||Hierarchical resource management with maximum allowable allocation boundaries|
|US5889996||16 Dec 1996||30 Mar 1999||Novell Inc.||Accelerator for interpretive environments|
|US5892968||15 Oct 1996||6 Apr 1999||Hitachi, Ltd.||Multimedia data transferring method|
|US5905730||27 Mar 1998||18 May 1999||Ascend Communications, Inc.||High speed packet scheduling method and apparatus|
|US5905859||9 Jan 1997||18 May 1999||International Business Machines Corporation||Managed network device security method and apparatus|
|US5913024||9 Feb 1996||15 Jun 1999||Secure Computing Corporation||Secure server utilizing separate protocol stacks|
|US5915085||28 Feb 1997||22 Jun 1999||International Business Machines Corporation||Multiple resource or security contexts in a multithreaded application|
|US5915095||8 Aug 1995||22 Jun 1999||Ncr Corporation||Method and apparatus for balancing processing requests among a plurality of servers based on measurable characteristics off network node and common application|
|US5918018||9 Feb 1996||29 Jun 1999||Secure Computing Corporation||System and method for achieving network separation|
|US5920699||7 Nov 1996||6 Jul 1999||Hewlett-Packard Company||Broadcast isolation and level 3 network switch|
|US5933603||10 Jun 1996||3 Aug 1999||Emc Corporation||Video file server maintaining sliding windows of a video data set in random access memories of stream server computers for immediate video-on-demand service beginning at any specified location|
|US5937159||28 Mar 1997||10 Aug 1999||Data General Corporation||Secure computer system|
|US5956481||6 Feb 1997||21 Sep 1999||Microsoft Corporation||Method and apparatus for protecting data files on a computer from virus infection|
|US5961583||22 Nov 1996||5 Oct 1999||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and system for using the event wait list anchor as a lock for events|
|US5978373||11 Jul 1997||2 Nov 1999||Ag Communication Systems Corporation||Wide area network system providing secure transmission|
|US5982748||3 Oct 1996||9 Nov 1999||Nortel Networks Corporation||Method and apparatus for controlling admission of connection requests|
|US5987524||30 Sep 1997||16 Nov 1999||Fujitsu Limited||Local area network system and router unit|
|US5991812||6 Mar 1997||23 Nov 1999||Controlnet, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for fair queuing over a network|
|US5999963||7 Nov 1997||7 Dec 1999||Lucent Technologies, Inc.||Move-to-rear list scheduling|
|US6016318||14 Jul 1997||18 Jan 2000||Nec Corporation||Virtual private network system over public mobile data network and virtual LAN|
|US6018527||13 Aug 1996||25 Jan 2000||Nortel Networks Corporation||Queue service interval based cell scheduler with hierarchical queuing configurations|
|US6023721||14 May 1997||8 Feb 2000||Citrix Systems, Inc.||Method and system for allowing a single-user application executing in a multi-user environment to create objects having both user-global and system global visibility|
|US6038608||25 Nov 1997||14 Mar 2000||Nec Corporation||Virtual LAN system|
|US6038609||2 Apr 1998||14 Mar 2000||Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson||Method, communication network and service access interface for communications in an open system interconnection environment|
|US6047325||24 Aug 1998||4 Apr 2000||Jain; Lalit||Network device for supporting construction of virtual local area networks on arbitrary local and wide area computer networks|
|US6055617||29 Aug 1997||25 Apr 2000||Sequent Computer Systems, Inc.||Virtual address window for accessing physical memory in a computer system|
|US6061349||2 May 1997||9 May 2000||Cisco Technology, Inc.||System and method for implementing multiple IP addresses on multiple ports|
|US6065118||24 Sep 1996||16 May 2000||Citrix Systems, Inc.||Mobile code isolation cage|
|US6075791||28 Oct 1997||13 Jun 2000||Lucent Technologies Inc.||System for guaranteeing data transfer rates and delays in packet networks|
|US6075938||10 Jun 1998||13 Jun 2000||The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University||Virtual machine monitors for scalable multiprocessors|
|US6078929||6 Jun 1997||20 Jun 2000||At&T||Internet file system|
|US6078957||20 Nov 1998||20 Jun 2000||Network Alchemy, Inc.||Method and apparatus for a TCP/IP load balancing and failover process in an internet protocol (IP) network clustering system|
|US6086623||30 Jun 1997||11 Jul 2000||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Method and implementation for intercepting and processing system calls in programmed digital computer to emulate retrograde operating system|
|US6092178||3 Sep 1998||18 Jul 2000||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||System for responding to a resource request|
|US6094674||29 Jun 1998||25 Jul 2000||Hitachi, Ltd.||Information processing system and information processing method and quality of service supplying method for use with the system|
|US6101543||25 Oct 1996||8 Aug 2000||Digital Equipment Corporation||Pseudo network adapter for frame capture, encapsulation and encryption|
|US6108701||20 Jul 1998||22 Aug 2000||Lucent Technologies, Inc.||Soft switch extension for internet protocol applications|
|US6108759||17 Sep 1997||22 Aug 2000||Powerquest Corporation||Manipulation of partitions holding advanced file systems|
|US6122673||22 Jul 1998||19 Sep 2000||Fore Systems, Inc.||Port scheduler and method for scheduling service providing guarantees, hierarchical rate limiting with/without overbooking capability|
|US6154776||20 Mar 1998||28 Nov 2000||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Quality of service allocation on a network|
|US6154778||19 May 1998||28 Nov 2000||Hewlett-Packard Company||Utility-based multi-category quality-of-service negotiation in distributed systems|
|US6161139||12 Feb 1999||12 Dec 2000||Encommerce, Inc.||Administrative roles that govern access to administrative functions|
|US6167520||29 Jan 1997||26 Dec 2000||Finjan Software, Inc.||System and method for protecting a client during runtime from hostile downloadables|
|US6172981||30 Oct 1997||9 Jan 2001||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and system for distributing network routing functions to local area network stations|
|US6189046||27 Mar 1997||13 Feb 2001||Hewlett-Packard Company||Mechanism and method for merging cached location information in a distributed object environment|
|US6192389||28 Mar 1997||20 Feb 2001||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and apparatus for transferring file descriptors in a multiprocess, multithreaded client/server system|
|US6192512||24 Sep 1998||20 Feb 2001||International Business Machines Corporation||Interpreter with virtualized interface|
|US6230203||14 Mar 1997||8 May 2001||Scientific-Atlanta, Inc.||System and method for providing statistics for flexible billing in a cable environment|
|US6240463||24 Nov 1998||29 May 2001||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Router placement methods and apparatus for designing IP networks with performance guarantees|
|US6247057||22 Oct 1998||12 Jun 2001||Microsoft Corporation||Network server supporting multiple instance of services to operate concurrently by having endpoint mapping subsystem for mapping virtual network names to virtual endpoint IDs|
|US6259699||30 Dec 1997||10 Jul 2001||Nexabit Networks, Llc||System architecture for and method of processing packets and/or cells in a common switch|
|US6266678||31 Dec 1998||24 Jul 2001||Computer Associates Think, Inc.||System and method for dynamically viewing contents of a data file|
|US6269404||5 Jan 1999||31 Jul 2001||3Com Corporation||Virtual network architecture for connectionless LAN backbone|
|US6279039||3 Apr 1996||21 Aug 2001||Ncr Corporation||Resource management method and apparatus for maximizing multimedia performance of open systems|
|US6279040||27 Apr 1999||21 Aug 2001||Industrial Technology Research Institute||Scalable architecture for media-on demand servers|
|US6282581||27 Mar 1997||28 Aug 2001||Hewlett-Packard Company||Mechanism for resource allocation and for dispatching incoming calls in a distributed object environment|
|US6282703||29 Oct 1998||28 Aug 2001||International Business Machines Corporation||Statically linking an application process with a wrapper library|
|US6286047||10 Sep 1998||4 Sep 2001||Hewlett-Packard Company||Method and system for automatic discovery of network services|
|US6298479||29 May 1998||2 Oct 2001||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Method and system for compiling and linking source files|
|US6314558||16 Feb 1999||6 Nov 2001||Compuware Corporation||Byte code instrumentation|
|US6327622||3 Sep 1998||4 Dec 2001||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Load balancing in a network environment|
|US6336138||25 Aug 1998||1 Jan 2002||Hewlett-Packard Company||Template-driven approach for generating models on network services|
|US6351775||30 May 1997||26 Feb 2002||International Business Machines Corporation||Loading balancing across servers in a computer network|
|US6353616||28 Dec 1998||5 Mar 2002||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Adaptive processor schedulor and method for reservation protocol message processing|
|US6363053||8 Feb 1999||26 Mar 2002||3Com Corporation||Method and apparatus for measurement-based conformance testing of service level agreements in networks|
|US6370583||17 Aug 1998||9 Apr 2002||Compaq Information Technologies Group, L.P.||Method and apparatus for portraying a cluster of computer systems as having a single internet protocol image|
|US6381228||15 Jan 1999||30 Apr 2002||Trw Inc.||Onboard control of demand assigned multiple access protocol for satellite ATM networks|
|US6385638||4 Sep 1997||7 May 2002||Equator Technologies, Inc.||Processor resource distributor and method|
|US6389448||5 May 2000||14 May 2002||Warp Solutions, Inc.||System and method for load balancing|
|US6393484||12 Apr 1999||21 May 2002||International Business Machines Corp.||System and method for controlled access to shared-medium public and semi-public internet protocol (IP) networks|
|US6425003||22 Jan 1999||23 Jul 2002||Cisco Technology, Inc.||Method and apparatus for DNS resolution|
|US6430622||22 Sep 1999||6 Aug 2002||International Business Machines Corporation||Methods, systems and computer program products for automated movement of IP addresses within a cluster|
|US6434631||15 Oct 1999||13 Aug 2002||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Method and system for providing computer storage access with quality of service guarantees|
|US6434742||10 May 1999||13 Aug 2002||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Symbol for automatically renaming symbols in files during the compiling of the files|
|US6438134||24 Aug 1998||20 Aug 2002||Alcatel Canada Inc.||Two-component bandwidth scheduler having application in multi-class digital communications systems|
|US6442164||3 Jun 1999||27 Aug 2002||Fujitsu Network Communications, Inc.||Method and system for allocating bandwidth and buffer resources to constant bit rate (CBR) traffic|
|US6449652||4 Jan 1999||10 Sep 2002||Emc Corporation||Method and apparatus for providing secure access to a computer system resource|
|US6457008||28 Aug 1998||24 Sep 2002||Oracle Corporation||Pluggable resource scheduling policies|
|US6463459||22 Jan 1999||8 Oct 2002||Wall Data Incorporated||System and method for executing commands associated with specific virtual desktop|
|US6470398||7 Apr 1997||22 Oct 2002||Compaq Computer Corporation||Method and apparatus for supporting a select () system call and interprocess communication in a fault-tolerant, scalable distributed computer environment|
|US6487578||29 Sep 1997||26 Nov 2002||Intel Corporation||Dynamic feedback costing to enable adaptive control of resource utilization|
|US6487663||19 Oct 1998||26 Nov 2002||Realnetworks, Inc.||System and method for regulating the transmission of media data|
|US6490670||24 Apr 1998||3 Dec 2002||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and apparatus for efficiently allocating objects in object oriented systems|
|US6499137||20 Nov 1998||24 Dec 2002||Microsoft Corporation||Reversible load-time dynamic linking|
|US6529950||17 Jun 1999||4 Mar 2003||International Business Machines Corporation||Policy-based multivariate application-level QoS negotiation for multimedia services|
|US6529985||4 Feb 2000||4 Mar 2003||Ensim Corporation||Selective interception of system calls|
|US6542167||28 Jan 2000||1 Apr 2003||Wind River Systems, Inc.||System and method for flexible software linking|
|US6553413||28 Jun 2000||22 Apr 2003||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Content delivery network using edge-of-network servers for providing content delivery to a set of participating content providers|
|US6560613||8 Feb 2000||6 May 2003||Ensim Corporation||Disambiguating file descriptors|
|US6578055||5 Jun 2000||10 Jun 2003||International Business Machines Corporation||Methods, system and computer program products for mirrored file access through assuming a privileged user level|
|US6578068||31 Aug 1999||10 Jun 2003||Accenture Llp||Load balancer in environment services patterns|
|US6580721||11 Aug 1998||17 Jun 2003||Nortel Networks Limited||Routing and rate control in a universal transfer mode network|
|US6647422||10 Nov 1998||11 Nov 2003||Network Engineering Technologies, Inc.||Web server employing multi-homed, modular framework|
|US6658571||9 Feb 1999||2 Dec 2003||Secure Computing Corporation||Security framework for dynamically wrapping software applications executing in a computing system|
|US6691312||17 Mar 2000||10 Feb 2004||University Of Massachusetts||Multicasting video|
|US6711607||4 Feb 2000||23 Mar 2004||Ensim Corporation||Dynamic scheduling of task streams in a multiple-resource system to ensure task stream quality of service|
|US6725456||29 Nov 1999||20 Apr 2004||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Methods and apparatus for ensuring quality of service in an operating system|
|US6754716||11 Feb 2000||22 Jun 2004||Ensim Corporation||Restricting communication between network devices on a common network|
|US6760775||6 Mar 2000||6 Jul 2004||At&T Corp.||System, method and apparatus for network service load and reliability management|
|US6779016||11 Feb 2000||17 Aug 2004||Terraspring, Inc.||Extensible computing system|
|US6820117||18 Oct 1999||16 Nov 2004||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Bandwidth management|
|US6948003||15 Mar 2000||20 Sep 2005||Ensim Corporation||Enabling a service provider to provide intranet services|
|US6976258||30 Nov 1999||13 Dec 2005||Ensim Corporation||Providing quality of service guarantees to virtual hosts|
|US6985937||11 May 2000||10 Jan 2006||Ensim Corporation||Dynamically modifying the resources of a virtual server|
|US7343421||14 Feb 2000||11 Mar 2008||Digital Asset Enterprises Llc||Restricting communication of selected processes to a set of specific network addresses|
|US20030061338||25 Jun 1999||27 Mar 2003||Tony Stelliga||System for multi-layer broadband provisioning in computer networks|
|JPS642145A *||Title not available|
|1||Aho, A. V. and Ullman J. D., Principles of Complier Design, Reading, MA, 1977, pp. vii-x, 359-362, 519-522.|
|2||Bach, M. J., The Design of the Unix.RTM. Operating System, New Delhi, Prentice-Hall of India, 1989, pp. v-x, 19-37.|
|3||Boehm, B., "Managing Software Productivity and Reuse," IEEE Computer, vol. 32, No. 9, Sep. 1999, 3 pages.|
|4||Campbell, A. T. and Keshav, S., "Quality of Service in Distributed Systems," Computer Communications 21, 1998, pp. 291-293.|
|5||Corbato, F. J. et al. "An Experimental Timesharing System," Proceedings of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies Spring Joint Computer Conference, San Francisco, CA, May 1-3, 1962, pp. 335-344.|
|6||Deutsch, P. and Grant, C.A., "A Flexible Measurement Tool for Software Systems," Information Processing 71 (Proc. of the IFIP Congress), 1971, pp. 320-326.|
|7||Duffield, N.G., et al., "A Flexible Model for Resource Management in Virtual Private Networks," Computer Communication Review Conference, Computer Communication, ACM SIGCOMM '99 Conference, Cambridge, MA, Aug. 30, 1999-Sep. 3, 1999. pp. 95-108.|
|8||Edjlali, G., et al., "History-based Access Control for Mobile Code," Fifth ACM Conference on Computer and Communication Security, Nov. 3-5, 1998, 19 pages.|
|9||Egevang, K. and Francis P., RFC 1631, May 1994 [online], [retrieved Feb. 2, 2000]. Retrieved from the Internet: .|
|10||Egevang, K. and Francis P., RFC 1631, May 1994 [online], [retrieved Feb. 2, 2000]. Retrieved from the Internet: <URL:faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1631.html>.|
|11||Erlingsson, U. and Schneider, F. B., "Sasi Enforcement of Security Policies: A Retrospective," Proc. New Security Paradigms Workshop, Apr. 2, 1999, pp. 1-17.|
|12||Erlingsson, U. and Schnieder, F. B., IRM Enforcement of Java Stack Inspection, [online], Feb. 19, 2000 [Retrieved on Apr. 2, 2002]. Retrieved from the Internet: .|
|13||Erlingsson, U. and Schnieder, F. B., IRM Enforcement of Java Stack Inspection, [online], Feb. 19, 2000 [Retrieved on Apr. 2, 2002]. Retrieved from the Internet: <URL: http://cs-tr.cs.cornell.edu/Dienst/UI2.0/ShowPage/ncstrl.cornell/TR2000-1786>.|
|14||Evans, D. and Twyman, A., "Flexible Policy-Directed Code Safety," Proc. of 1999 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, Oakland, CA, May 9-12, 1999, pp. 1-14.|
|15||Fraser, T. et al., "Hardening COTS Software with Generic Software Wrappers," Proc. of 1999 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 1999, 15 pages.|
|16||Goldberg, I. et al., "A Secure Environment for Untrusted Helper Applications (Confining the Wily Hacker)," Proc. of the Sixth USENIX UNIX Security Symposium, San Jose, CA, Jul. 1996, 14 pages.|
|17||Goldberg, R. P., "Survey of Virtual Machine Research," IEEE Computer, Jun. 1974, pp. 34-45.|
|18||Goyal, P. et al., "Start-time Fair Queuing: A Scheduling Algorithm for Integrated Services Packet Switching Networks," Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM '96, San Francisco, CA, Aug. 1996, 14 pages.|
|19||Goyal, P., "Packet Scheduling Algorithms for Integrated Services Networks," PhD Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin, TX, Aug. 1997.|
|20||Goyal, P., et al., "A Hierarchical CPU Scheduler for Multimedia Operating Systems," Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementations (OSDE'96), Seattle, WA, Oct. 1996, 15 pages.|
|21||Goyal, Pawan et al., Generalized Guaranteed Rate Scheduling Algorithms: A Framework, IEEE/ACM Transactions, vol. 5, Issue: 4, Aug. 1997; pp. 561-571.|
|22||Huang, X. W. et al., "The ENTRAPID Protocol Development Environment," Proceedings of IEEE Infocom'99, Mar. 1999, 9 pages.|
|23||Janosi, T., "Notes on ‘A Hierarchical CPU Scheduler for Multimedia Operating Systems’ by Pawan Goyal, Xingang Guo and Harrick Vin," [online], [retrieved on May 8, 2000]. Retrieved from the Internet: <URL:http://cs.cornell.edu/Info/Courses/Spring-97/CS614/goy.html>.|
|24||Janosi, T., "Notes on 'A Hierarchical CPU Scheduler for Multimedia Operating Systems' by Pawan Goyal, Xingang Guo and Harrick Vin," [online], [retrieved on May 8, 2000]. Retrieved from the Internet: .|
|25||Jonsoon, J., "Exploring the Importance of Preprocessing Operations in Real-Time Multiprocessor Scheduling," Proc. of the IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium-Work-in-Progress session, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 4, 1997, pp. 31-34.|
|26||Jonsoon, J., "Exploring the Importance of Preprocessing Operations in Real-Time Multiprocessor Scheduling," Proc. of the IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium—Work-in-Progress session, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 4, 1997, pp. 31-34.|
|27||Keshav, S., An Engineering Approach to Computer Networking: ATM Networks, the Internet, and the Telephone Network, Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley, 1997, pp. vii-xi, 85-115, 209-355, 395-444.|
|28||Laurie, B. and Laurie, P., Apache The Definitive Guide, Sebastopol, CA, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., Feb. 1999, pp. v-viii, 43-74.|
|29||Mallory, T and Kullberg, A., RFC 1141, Jan. 1990 [online], [retrieved Feb. 2, 2000]. Retrieved from the internet: .|
|30||Mallory, T and Kullberg, A., RFC 1141, Jan. 1990 [online], [retrieved Feb. 2, 2000]. Retrieved from the internet: <URL:faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1141.html>.|
|31||McDougall, R., et al., Resource Management, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall, 1999, pp. iii-xix, 135-191.|
|32||Mitra, Debasis et al., "Hierarchical Virtual Partitioning: Algorithms for Virtual Private Networking," Bell Labs Technical Journal, Spring, 1997, http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/ms/who/mitra/papers/globe.ps.|
|33||Pandey, R. And Hashii, B., "Providing Fine-Grained Access Control for Mobile Programs Through Binary Editing," Technical Report TR98 08, University of California, Davis, CA, 1998, pp. 1-22.|
|34||Pending United States patent application entitled "Disambiguating File Descriptors," U.S. Appl. No. 09/500,212, filed Feb. 8, 2000.|
|35||Pending United States patent application entitled "Dynamic Scheduling of Task Streams in a Multiple-Resource System to Ensure Task Stream Quality of Service," U.S. Appl. No. 09/498,450, filed Feb. 4, 2000.|
|36||Pending United States patent application entitled "Enabling a Service Provider to Provide Intranet Services," U.S. Appl. No. 09/526,980, filed Mar. 15, 2000.|
|37||Pending United States patent application entitled "Providing Quality of Service Guarantees to Virtual Hosts," U.S. Appl. No. 09/452,286, filed Nov. 30, 1999.|
|38||Pending United States patent application entitled "Restricting Communication Between Network Devices on a Common Network," U.S. Appl. No. 09/502,155, filed Feb. 11, 2000.|
|39||Pending United States patent application entitled "Restricting Communication of Selected Processes to a Set of Specific Network Addresses," U.S. Appl. No. 09/503,975, filed Feb. 14, 2000.|
|40||Pending United States patent application entitled "Selective Interception of System Calls," U.S. Appl. No. 09/499,098, filed Feb. 4, 2000.|
|41||Plummer, D. C., An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol-or-Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet Address for Transmission of Ethernet Hardware, Nov. 1982, [online], [retrieved on Jan. 17, 2000]. Retrieved from the Internet: .|
|42||Plummer, D. C., An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol—or—Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet Address for Transmission of Ethernet Hardware, Nov. 1982, [online], [retrieved on Jan. 17, 2000]. Retrieved from the Internet: <URL: msg.net/kadow/answers/extras/rfc/rfc826.txt>.|
|43||Plummer, D. C., An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol-or-Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet Address for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware, Nov. 1982, [online], [retrieved on Jan. 17, 2000]. Retrieved from the Internet: .|
|44||Plummer, D. C., An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol-or-Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet Address for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware, Nov. 1982, [online], [retrieved on Jan. 17, 2000]. Retrieved from the Internet: <URL: msg.net/kadow/answers/extras/rfc/rfc826.txt>.|
|45||Rijsinghani, A., RFC 1624, May 1994, [online], [retrieved Feb. 2, 2000]. Retrieved from the internet: .|
|46||Rijsinghani, A., RFC 1624, May 1994, [online], [retrieved Feb. 2, 2000]. Retrieved from the internet: <URL:faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1624.html>.|
|47||Ritchie, D. M., "The Evolution of the Unix Time-Sharing System," AT&T Bell Laboratories Technical Journal 63, No. 6, Part 2, Oct. 1984, (originally presented 1979), 11 pages.|
|48||Rubini, A., Linux Device Drivers, Sebastopol, CA, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., 1998, pp. v-x, 13-40.|
|49||Rusling, D. A., Files, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999]. Retrieved from the Internet: .|
|50||Rusling, D. A., Files, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999]. Retrieved from the Internet: <URL: cebaf.gov/.about.saw/linux-html/node49.html>.|
|51||Rusling, D. A., Files, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999]. Retrieved from the Internet: <URL:cebaf.gov/˜saw/linux/tlk-html/node49.html>.|
|52||Rusling, D. A., Identifiers, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999]. Retrieved from the Internet: .|
|53||Rusling, D. A., Identifiers, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999]. Retrieved from the Internet: <URL:cebaf.gov/.about.saw/linux/tlk-html/node46.html>.|
|54||Rusling, D. A., Identifiers, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999]. Retrieved from the Internet: <URL:cebaf.gov/˜saw/linux/tlk-html/node46.html>.|
|55||Rusling, D. A., Linux Processes, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999], Retrieved from the Internet: .|
|56||Rusling, D. A., Linux Processes, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999], Retrieved from the Internet: <URL:cebaf.gov/˜saw/linux/tlk-html/node45.html>.|
|57||Rusling, D. A., Linux Processes, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999]. Retrieved from the Internet: .|
|58||Rusling, D. A., Linux Processes, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999]. Retrieved from the Internet: <URL:cebaf.gov/.about.saw/linux/tlk-html/node45.html>.|
|59||Rusling, D. A., Processes, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999], Retrieved from the Internet: .|
|60||Rusling, D. A., Processes, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999], Retrieved from the Internet: <URL: cebaf.gov/˜saw/linux/tlk-html/node44.html>.|
|61||Rusling, D. A., Processes, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999]. Retrieved from the Internet: .|
|62||Rusling, D. A., Processes, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999]. Retrieved from the Internet: <URL: cebaf.gov/.about.saw/linux/tlk-html/node44.html>.|
|63||Rusling, D. A., Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999]. Retrieved from the Internet: .|
|64||Rusling, D. A., Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999]. Retrieved from the Internet: <URL:cebaf.gov/.about.saw/linux/tlk-html/node48.html>.|
|65||Rusling, D. A., Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999]. Retrieved from the Internet: <URL:cebaf.gov/˜saw/linux/tlk-html/node48.html>.|
|66||Rusling, D. A., Scheduling, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999]. Retrieved from the Internet: .|
|67||Rusling, D. A., Scheduling, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999]. Retrieved from the Internet: <URL: cebaf.gov/.about.saw/linux/tlk-html/node47.html>.|
|68||Rusling, D. A., Scheduling, [online], [retrieved on Dec. 7, 1999]. Retrieved from the Internet: <URL: cebaf.gov/˜saw/linux/tlk-html/node47.html>.|
|69||Saltzer, J., H. and Schroeder, M. D., The Protection of Information in Computer Systems, [online], 1973, [retrieved on Apr. 2, 2002]. Retrieved from the Internet: .|
|70||Saltzer, J., H. and Schroeder, M. D., The Protection of Information in Computer Systems, [online], 1973, [retrieved on Apr. 2, 2002]. Retrieved from the Internet: <URL: cs.virginia.edu.about.evans/cs551/saltzer/>.|
|71||Stevens, R. W., Unix Network Programming vol. 1 Networking APIs: Sockets and XTI, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall, 1998, pp. v-xiv, 29-53, 85-110, 727-760.|
|72||Symbol Table, [online] copyright 1997, 1998, [Retrieved on Apr. 4, 2003] Retrieved from the internet <URL: http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:eASXk8qC--AC:www.caldera.com/developers/gabi*1998-04-29/ch4.s...], pp. 1-5.|
|73||Symbol Table, [online] copyright 1997, 1998, [Retrieved on Apr. 4, 2003] Retrieved from the internet <URL: http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:eASXk8qC—-AC:www.caldera.com/developers/gabi*1998-04-29/ch4.s...], pp. 1-5.|
|74||Tanenbaum, A. S. And Woodhull, A. S., Operating Systems: Design and Implementation, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall, 1997, pp. vii-xiv, 1-46, 401-454.|
|75||Wahbe, R., et al., "Efficient Software-Based Fault Isolation," Proc. of the Symposium on Operating System Principles, 1993, 14 pages.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8918512||19 Nov 2012||23 Dec 2014||International Business Machines Corporation||Managing a workload of a plurality of virtual servers of a computing environment|
|US8959220 *||2 Nov 2010||17 Feb 2015||International Business Machines Corporation||Managing a workload of a plurality of virtual servers of a computing environment|
|US8966020||2 Nov 2010||24 Feb 2015||International Business Machines Corporation||Integration of heterogeneous computing systems into a hybrid computing system|
|US8972538||28 Apr 2012||3 Mar 2015||International Business Machines Corporation||Integration of heterogeneous computing systems into a hybrid computing system|
|US8984109||2 Nov 2010||17 Mar 2015||International Business Machines Corporation||Ensemble having one or more computing systems and a controller thereof|
|US8984115||20 Nov 2012||17 Mar 2015||International Business Machines Corporation||Ensemble having one or more computing systems and a controller thereof|
|US9081613||2 Nov 2010||14 Jul 2015||International Business Machines Corporation||Unified resource manager providing a single point of control|
|US9086918||20 Dec 2012||21 Jul 2015||International Business Machiness Corporation||Unified resource manager providing a single point of control|
|US20120110164 *||3 May 2012||International Business Machines Corporation||Managing a workload of a plurality of virtual servers of a computing environment|
|USRE44686||19 Sep 2011||31 Dec 2013||Digital Asset Enterprises, L.L.C.||Dynamically modifying the resources of a virtual server|
|U.S. Classification||709/223, 709/224, 709/226, 370/231, 370/235, 709/238, 718/105, 714/35|
|International Classification||G06F11/00, G06F15/173, G06F9/46|
|Cooperative Classification||G06F9/505, G06F9/5077|
|European Classification||G06F9/50C6, G06F9/50A6L|
|11 Jan 2011||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ENSIM CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:KESHAV, SRINIVASAN;SHARMA, ROSEN;CHUANG, SHAW;SIGNING DATES FROM 20010320 TO 20010503;REEL/FRAME:025621/0824
|13 Jan 2011||AS||Assignment|
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:ENSIM CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:025631/0588
Owner name: DIGITAL ASSET ENTERPRISES, L.L.C., DELAWARE
Effective date: 20070607
|13 Mar 2012||CC||Certificate of correction|
|18 Mar 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8